1379. A person who does not offer his daily prayers within time, should offer Qadha prayers, even if he slept during the entire time prescribed for the prayers, or because of intoxication he did not offer his prayers. However, the ladies who have to leave out daily prayers, due to Hayz or Nifas, similarly, if someone was unconscious the entire prescribed time for the prayers unintentionally, do not have to give any Qadha for them.
1380. If a person realizes after the time for the prayers has lapsed, that the prayers which he offered in time was void, he should perform its Qadha prayers.
1381. A person having Qadha prayers on him, should not be careless about offering them, although it is not obligatory for him to offer it immediately.
1382. A person who has Qadha prayers on him, can offer Mustahab prayers.
1383. If a person suspects that he might have Qadha on him, or that the prayers offered by him were not valid, it is Mustahab that, as a measure of precaution, he should offer their Qadha.
1384. A person willing to offer the Qadha of daily prayers should maintain the sequential order in offering it. Like, one should offer the Qadha of Zuhr and ‘Asr prayers or Maghrib and ‘Isha prayers of the same day as the prescribed order, like if one have to offer his Qadha Zuhr and ‘Asr prayers of the same day, he should first offer his Zuhr prayers and then his ‘Asr prayers. However, if one has to offer the Qadha Zuhr prayer of one day and ‘Asr prayer of another day, he can offer the Qadha of ‘Asr prayers before the Zuhr prayers, and it is not necessary to maintain the sequential order, although it is better to maintain the prescribed order.
1385. If a person wishes to offer some Qadha prayers for other than the daily prayer, like Namaz – e – Ayaat, or, for example, if he wishes to offer one daily prayer and a few other prayers, it is not necessary to maintain order in offering them.
1386. In rule no. 1384, is has been mentioned that it is not necessary to maintain the sequential order while offering Qadha prayers specially when one does not know the order of the prayers which he did not offer. Maintaining order is only essential when the validity of the prayer is based upon it, however, if one wants, he can act according to the precautionary measures, and if is better to maintain the sequential order. If a person forgets the sequential order of the prayers which he has not offered, it is better that he should offer them in such a way, that he would be sure that he has offered them in the order in which they lapsed.
For example, if it is obligatory for him to offer one Qadha prayer of Zuhr and one of Maghrib, and he does not know which of them lapsed first he should first offer one Qadha for Maghrib and thereafter one Zuhr prayer, and then one Maghrib once again, or he should offer one Zuhr prayer and then one Maghrib prayer, and then one Zuhr prayer once again, so that he is sure that the Qadha prayers which lapsed first has been offered first.
1387. If Zuhr prayers of one day and ‘Asr prayers of another day, or two Zuhr prayers or two ‘Asr prayers of a person becomes Qadha, and if he does not know which of them lapsed first, it will be sufficient if he offers two prayers of four Rak’ats each, with the Niyyat that the first is the Qadha prayer of the first day, and the second is the Qadha prayer of the second day.
1388. If one Zuhr prayer and one ‘Isha prayer, or one ‘Asr prayer and one ‘Isha prayer of a person become Qadha, and he does not know which of them lapsed first, it is better that he should perform their Qadha in a way that would ensure that he has maintained the order.
For example, if one Zuhr prayer and one ‘Isha prayer have lapsed, and he does not know which of them lapsed first, he should first offer one Zuhr prayer, followed by one ‘Isha prayer, and then one Zuhr prayer once again, or he should first offer one ‘Isha prayer, and thereafter one Zuhr prayer, and then one ‘Isha prayer once again.
1389. If a person knows that he has not offered a prayer consisting of four Rak’ats, but does not know whether it is Zuhr or ‘Isha, it will be sufficient to offer a four Rak’at prayer with the Niyyat of offering Qadha prayer for the Namaz not offered.
1390. If five prayers of a person have lapsed one after another, and he does not know which of them was first, he should offer nine prayers in order. For example, he
commences with Fajr prayer and after having offered Zuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib and ‘Isha prayers, he should offer again Fajr, Zuhr, ‘Asr and Maghrib prayers. If six prayers of a person have lapsed one after another, and he does not know which of them was first, he should offer ten prayers in order. Similarly, every number of Namaz which is added to his Qadha Namaz, if it has lapsed one after the other, he should add one more to the number or Qadha Namaz the way it is explained, for example, If seven prayers of a person have lapsed one after another, and he does not know which of them was first, he should offer eleven prayers in order. This way he will ensure the requisite order.
1391. If a person knows that one prayer on each day has lapsed, but does not know its order, if he offers the prayers of one whole day, it is sufficient. However, if one wants to act according to the precautionary measures, he should offer six days’ daily prayers.
Thus for every Qadha prayer of an additional day, he should offer an additional day’s prayers, so that he may become sure that he has offered the prayers in the same order in which they had become Qadha. For example, if he has not offered seven prayers of seven days, he should perform Qadha prayers of seven days.
1392. If a person has a number of Fajr or Zuhr prayers Qadha on him, and he does not know their exact number, for example, if he does not know whether they were three, four or five prayers, it will be sufficient if he offers the smaller number. However, if he knew the number and has forgotten, it is better that he should offer enough Qadha to ensure, that he has offered all of them. For example, if he has forgotten how many Fajr prayers of his have become Qadha and is certain that they were not more than ten, he should, offer ten Fajr prayers.
1393. If a person has only one Qadha prayer of previous days, it is better that he should offer it first, and then start offering prayers of that day. And if he has no pending Qadha of previous days, but has one or more of the same day, if it is possible, as per recommended precaution, it is better that he should offer Qadha prayers of that day before offering the present obligatory prayers.
1394. If a person remembers during the prayers that one or more prayers of that same day have become Qadha, or that he has to offer only one Qadha prayer of the previous days, he should convert his Niyyat to Qadha prayers, provided that converting the Niyyat is possible. For example, if he remembers before finishing his second Rak’at in Zuhr that his Fajr prayers was Qadha, and if the time for Zuhr is not limited, he can convert his Niyyat to Fajr prayer, and complete it with two Rak’ats, and then offer Zuhr prayer. But, if the time is limited, or if he cannot convert
his Niyyat to Qadha, like, when he remembers in Ruku’ of the third Rak’at of Zuhr, that he has not offered the Fajr prayers, and by converting the Niyyat to Fajr prayers, one Ruku’ which is a Rukn will increase, he should not change his Niyyat to the Qadha Fajr prayer.
1395. If a person is required to offer a number of Qadha prayers of previous days, together with one or more prayers of that very day, and if he does not have time to offer Qadha of all of them, or does not wish to offer Qadha of all of them on that day, it is Mustahab to offer the Qadha of that day before offering Ada (the same day's) prayers, and as per recommended precaution, it is better that after offering previous Qadha, he should once again give Qadha of that day, which he had offered earlier.
1396. As long as a person is alive, no other person can offer his Qadha on his behalf, even if he himself is unable to offer them.
1397. Qadha prayers can be offered in congregation, irrespective of whether the prayers of the Imam are Ada or Qadha. And it is not necessary that both of them should be offering the same prayers; there is no harm if a person offers Qadha Fajr prayers with the Zuhr prayer or ‘Asr prayers of the Imam.
1398. It is recommended that a discerning child (one who can distinguish between good and evil), is made to form the habit of praying daily obligatory and Nafila prayers regularly, and to perform other acts of worship, good deeds and good behavior. It is obligatory on the guardians of the children, that they should keep them away from everything that can be harmful for them or others. Moreover, they should not let them do things which the Shariah has prohibited. They should pay special attention towards the education and upbringing, and they should be educated under the guidance of committed and righteous teachers. Children should be sent to schools and colleges which is good in all aspects (specially its culture and atmosphere). Parents should be very careful while choosing the names for the children. They should not be negligent and in advert towards their children’s upbringing, and so that the responsibility of the sins of their children and grandchildren’s corruption and immorality don’t come on to them.