Method of Ascertaining the First Day of a Month
1739. The 1st day of a month is ascertained by the following five ways:
1740. If the religious authority declares that, it is the first of a month, if someone who is not his follower (Muqallid), that person should also follow his command.
However, if someone knows that the religious authority is mistaken then he cannot follow his command.
1741. The first day of a month will not be proved by the prediction made by the astronomers. However, if a person derives full satisfaction and certitude from their findings, he should act accordingly.
1742. If the moon is high up in the sky, or sets late, it is not an indication that the previous night was the first night of the month.
1743. If the first day of the month of Ramadhan is not proved for a person and he does not observe fast, and later two Aadil person testify in front of him that they have seen the moon on the previous night, then he should observe Qadha of that day.
1744. It is not farfetched that if the first day of a month is proved in a city, it is also proved in other cities.
1745. The first day of a month is not proved by a telegram except when one is sure that the telegram is a command of the religious authority or it is based on the testimony of two Aadils.
1746. If a person does not know that whether it is the last day of Ramadhan or the first of Shawwal, he should observe fast on that day, however, if he comes to know before Maghrib that it is the first of Shawwal, he should break the fast.
1747. If a prisoner cannot ascertain the advent of Ramadhan, he should act on probability and even if the probability is not possible, he may consider a month and fast; however, he should fast for one more month after eleven months have been passed.