آیت الله العظمی نوری همدانی با حضور در بیت مرجع عالیقدر آیت الله العظمی صافی گلپایگانی، با ایشان دیدار کردند. در این دیدار که عصر  امروز شنبه  13 جمادی الأولی 1438 برگزار شد، این دو مرجع تقلید درباره مسائل حوزه و کشور، بخصوص فعالیت‌های...
Monday: 27 / 02 / 2017 ( )

Printer-friendly versionSend by email
ALLEGIANCE WITH THE SUCCESSORHIP OF IMAM REDA

ALLEGIANCE WITH THE SUCCESSORHIP OF IMAM REDA (PEACE BE UPON HIM)

 

Among the incidences and historical events that took place in the holy month of Ramadan, was the allegiance with the successorship of his holiness, Imam Ali ibn Musa Ar – Reda (peace be upon Him). As per the narration of Sheikh Mufeed (may Allah have mercy on Him) and others, it occurred on the first day of the holy month of Ramadan, in 201 Hijri.[1]

Handing over the successorship to Imam Reda (peace be upon Him) was a political plot designed by Mamun (l.a.). Mamun took this step in order to suppress the internal revolutions, and express good intention and devotion towards the household of Prophet (peace be upon Him and His Progeny), which was under extreme pressure and agony until that time from the side of the Abbasid Government and their then caliphs, such as Mansoor, Hadi, Harun.

The oppressions and transgressions of the Abbasid dynasty towards Imam Ali’s progeny – which is the household and progeny of Prophet (peace be upon Him and His Progeny) and the nearest of all people to his holiness and the bearers of his knowledge – had exceeded.

Arrest in the worst of prisons, extreme entanglements, exile from hometown and house, prevention of water and bread, beatings and abuse, dishonour of sanctity, killing in the most brutal manners, are some of the examples of these austerities.

Ali’s progeny had no mistake except that they wished the betterment and welfare of mankind, they were devoted to truth, they demanded justice and freedom; and people considered them worthy of leading Muslims; Prophet (peace be upon Him and His Progeny) had referred the nation towards them so that religion, rulings and all the other religious issues were learned from them. People used to love Ali’s progeny and they ruled the hearts of society.

On the contrary, people from the Abbasid dynasty were oppressors, transgressors, usurpers, destroyers of the wealth houses (Baytul Maal) and aggressors. They had deviated the Islamic caliphate, just like the Umayyad dynasty, from its correct path and organized the worst forms of oppressions and dictatorships. They blazed the fire of racial discriminations, between the Arabs and non – Arabs, among the Muslims; and in order to create lack of awareness between the Muslims regarding the basic principles of Islam and the understanding of Quranic realities, and to stop them from knowing their rights, which would help the Abbasid dynasty to be able to revive the pre – Islamic ways of governance, they began to oppose the Arabic language – which is the language of Islam and Quran. They restricted the extension of Arabic in the dominion of Islamic nations and began to propagate the local languages of every region; to such an extent that they say: Abu Muslim had commanded:

“Destroy all the Arabic speaking people from Khurasan; because those who are not familiar with the Arabic language, and who cannot take the teachings and motives of Quran directly from Quran, will naturally not look towards their government – which is filled with luxuries – and towards their vast and extensive caliphate system, like a free and Qur’anic Muslim, with aversion and grudge.”

Therefore, Mamun was one of those people who used to propagate Persian language and gives rewards to the Persian poets; not because he had a liking for the Persian culture and language, but for initiating war between the Arabs and the non – Arabs; and by inclining towards one group, attract their support and suppress the other group. All of this was done because creating rift and conflicts between the nations of Arabs and non – Arabs, promoting intolerances and bringing the nation against each other face to face, was an impactful way of securing the pillars of a government which was behaving against the feelings of the common people.

One of the treacheries that was committed by the Abbasid dynasty towards Islam was that they disoriented and segregated the Muslim society, and created conflicts among them and in fact, it founded the uprisings that took place against the caliphate system in Iran and other countries; they forced the kind and understanding people to silence, and their spies deprived the society of it peace. Due to these factors, people did not like them and their oppression on Ali’s progeny (peace be upon Him) set the fire of sorrow in their hearts.

The people’s reaction against the crooked acts of Abbasid dynasty was their additional love for the leaders and Imams from Prophet’s household (peace be upon Him). But the government, which had established itself on the basis of forceful methods, and relied upon threatening and intimidation, increased the intensity of its actions and began to either assassinate, or bury alive, or throw into the dark prisons, all the young and old Sayyids as well as the supporters of a free Islamic government.[2]

Ali’s progeny (peace be upon Him) demanded freedom and supported a just and rightful Islamic government, based upon the Quran and Prophet’s tradition. By the passage of time, it became evident that the Abbasid dynasty were not the ones who have the ability to take the responsibility of leading Muslims.

It wasn’t even possible to separate religion from politics, so that Abbasid rulers could claim that we will run the politics and Ali’s progeny (peace be upon Him) will manage the religious affairs. Therefore, even if we lack in the religious and spiritual aspects or commit anti – religious acts, it does not contradict with the politics, governance and rule.

 

Religion and Politics

Abbasid rulers had no other option but to introduce themselves as both political and religious leaders, because in Islam, politics and religion are not separate from each other. Being religious means everything; separating religion from politics or distancing politics from religion, is the slogan of those enemies of Islam who wanted to remove Islam from the governance of Muslim societies and end the unity among Muslims. This issue, i.e. the separation and dissociation of religion from world, is the most dangerous anti – Islamic ideology and is openly against the Islamic teachings, verses of Quran and the tradition. Therefore, both Umayyad dynasty and Abbasid dynasty failed to deny it and helplessly called themselves the leaders of Muslims, even after lacking the required attributes of leadership. The objection raised by their opponents was that based on the evidence of your deeds and behaviour, and the lack of Islamic knowledge, you do not meet the requirement of leadership and hence, you are the usurpers of this position.

 

Volunteering of thoughts against the rule of Abbasid dynasty

At the end of the dictatorship of Harun and with the beginning of the rule of Mamun, the hostile feelings of a several groups of Muslims towards the rule of Abbasid dynasty exceeded severely; and their reactions against the actions, suppressing of thoughts and deprivation of individual and religious freedom exceeded in the hearts and was about to explode.

The tragic incident of the battle between “Amin” and “Mamun”, and all the bloodshed and life loss, as well as the killing of Amin, disclosed the realities of these political players more than ever.

Mamun took advantage of the nationalistic and creedal feelings of the Iranians and Amin took advantage of the nationalistic and creedal feelings of the Arabs, and used it as a medium to divide the Islamic world; and they revived those feelings which was totally eradicated by Islam several years ago. They ignored the real feelings of Islam, which was above all these feelings and sold away the supreme welfare issues of Islam for their own personal welfare.

Islam had eradicated all sorts of creedal, national or tribal intolerance, and prohibited wars to be take place on ground of creedal, national or tribal supremacy. It invited the entire humanity, irrespective of nation and tribe, towards Islam and brotherhood; but the usurper caliphs generally did not observe these aspects and took advantage of conflicts and differences.

The intellectual and learned Muslims, from the past and present, understood these delicate points and were aware of the dangers of propagating different nations and creeds among the Islamic society. But the powers which utilized these old and ancient thoughts for maintaining their dominance and governance, did not pay attention towards the advices of the senior Muslims.

Mamun, in order to provide orientation to the prevailing critical conditions, and to some extent prevent the reactions of all those oppressions and treacheries, killings of Sayyids and over expenditure of the Baytul Maal (House of wealth), to suppress the anger of people, to introduce himself as the well – wisher of Muslims and away from political benefits; and as per the saying of a few people; in order to introduce Prophet’s household (peace be upon Him) as greedy for rule[3]; or to make them face criticism[4] due to their acceptance of post from the governing system, and to use it as an evidence for proving the legality of their government; and in order to make silent and satisfy all those Muslims and many of his own chiefs and heads, who wished, demanded or rather, emphasised on the transfer of caliphate towards Ali’s progeny (peace be upon Him) and the Prophet’s household (peace be upon Him); he laid hands on a political deceit and fresh game, which would both introduce him as the supporter of truth, and will calm down the revolts which were taking place in the nooks and corners of his dominion, and as a result, strengthen the position of his rule whose pillars were shaking immensely.

 

Mamun's Plot

    Mamun planned to extend his hands towards the Prophet’s household and select as his crown prince their best, most appropriate, most knowledgeable and most pious person – who was from all the aspects among the Muslims, extremely popular, desirable and loved by all the people and there one was no one like him between the Abbasid progeny and others. He forced him to accept the responsibility in all the incidences, happenings and actions taken by them; in terminological words, he was made a member of the governing body.

This step, on one hand, made the people hopeful about the future of Islam and Muslims, and on the other hand, it introduced Imam Reda (peace be upon Him) as a member of the governing body, whose majority under the rule of Mamun, was accused and criticized by the entire society. As per the assumption of Mamun, this issue would naturally decrease the love of Imam Reda (peace be upon Him) and the faith and devotion towards the Prophet’s household. From another aspect, it would also silent the voice of those people who revolted and rose in the name of the holy Progeny (peace be upon Him).

Mamun’s plot was that after executing his programs and achieving his motives, like his forefathers – who killed numerous Sayyids, young and elderly men from the Prophet’s household (peace be upon Him)  –  he could remover Imam Reda (peace be upon Him) from the scenario, whenever he wished and according to the demand of his government’s welfare.

Therefore, in order to execute his mischievous motives, he sent “Rajaa bin Abid Dah’hak” with a group of his high officers, towards the holy city of Medina for bringing Imam Reda (peace be upon Him) to Khurasan, in any possible way.[5]

According to the details mentioned by the historians, with apparent honour and force, they brought Imam Reda (peace be upon Him) to “Marw”; and Mamun, by threatening Imam Reda (peace be upon Him) to death, forced his holiness to accept his successorship. But Imam Reda (peace be upon Him) kept an official condition before Mamun that he wouldn’t participate in any of the government affairs. With this act, he disappointed Mamun from his wish of making Imam Reda (peace be upon Him) responsible for all the incidents that take place in the country, the termination and appointment of the governors and rulers. In this way, Imam (peace be upon Him) completely refrained from standing in the row of the governing body.[6]

 

The duty of Imam (peace be upon Him).

As we know, and also according to the true Shia belief, in the method and behaviour chosen by all the Imams (peace be upon Him) was in compliance with the duty and obligation that was assigned for them from Allah’s side; and in their uprisings, steps, silence and confinement at home, they had no motive except Allah’s obedience, propagation of religion, guidance of humanity and protection of Islam.

Imam Reda (peace be upon Him) was fully aware of the plots of Mamun and he knew that the issue of successorship was nothing but a deceitful act; he had also informed how this affair will end and how will this successorship will gain a true meaning, while his holiness will pass away before the death of Mamun.

While Imam (peace be upon Him) intended to leave Medina, he informed his relatives that he will not return from this journey, and he commanded them to weep on him.

After all this, he had no option but to accept the invitation of Mamun and travel towards Khurasan.

 

Wisdoms and benefits of the allegiance of Imam Reda (peace be upon Him)

Here, we do not intend to discuss about the validity and acceptability of the journey of Imam Reda (peace be upon Him) towards Khurasan; because it is beyond our responsibility to enter these fields and delicate details; and give a judgment or verdict on the action of Imam (peace be upon Him) – whose character, behaviour and words are approved by the Mutawatir narrations and the order of Intellect; all that he says and performs, is according to Allah’s command and Prophet’s order.

Our narrow thoughts can definitely not reach the end of these realities; where the delicacies, wisdoms and inner reality of the actions of Khizr (peace be upon Him) are hidden for someone like Musa (peace be upon Him), how can the hidden truths of the actions and the steps taken by the great Guardians of Almighty Allah, i.e. Mohammad and his progeny (peace be upon them) – in whose description one must say: “Indeed, they are [His] honoured servants. They do not venture to speak ahead of Him, and they act by His command”[7] – what will reveal and become evident for the likes of us?

Nevertheless, to the extent in which our thought has the ability to enter this vast world and endless ocean, and to the limit where the divers of intellect, give themselves the courage to dive down under the vast and deep seas and oceans, we will briefly write down the wisdoms and benefits of this allegiance under the following points:

1. Revolution of thought in the era of Mamun:

After the era of extreme suppression during the reign of Harun and the long lasting imprisonment of Imam Musa bin Jafar (peace be upon Him), almost all the Shias and supporters of truth were openly and officially deprived of the guidance of Prophet’s household (peace be upon Him); and that universal school and the institute of knowledge, wisdom and guidance which was founded by Imam Sadiq (peace be upon Him), the source of light which brightened the entire Islamic world, was shut down due to the pressure of the ruling government of that time. If the suppression and pressure would have continued further, gradually the knowledge of Prophet’s progeny (peace be upon Him) would have gone away from the access of Muslims; and if the controlled monitoring by the government of the composition, publication and distribution of the books, its compilation and narration of traditions had continued, and if the teachers and knowledge schools were constantly monitored by the spies, then this amount of the knowledge of Prophet’s progeny (peace be upon Him) which has been distributed among the narrators and scholars, wouldn’t have remained.

The existence of an apparent freedom for the people who demanded freedom and the Shias, and the sect which asked for the complete execution of the Quran and tradition, can be counted as an extremely precious opportunity; this is because with this opportunity, they could propagate their thoughts in a fresh manner and make the youth and the class which was nurtured by the schools and institutes of Abbasid dynasty during the phase of Harun’s suppression and the imprisonment of Imam Musa bin Jafar (peace be upon Him), aware of the correct viewpoint of Islamic Oneness and freedom. And along with the introduction of the Shia school of thought, they could start a movement for the propagation of the Islamic message in all the Islamic nations.

The successorship of Imam Reda (peace be upon Him) and the apparent inclination of Mamun towards the Prophet’s household (peace be upon Him) gave this opportunity in the hands of the scholars and the narrators and the Shia poets. The steps taken by the Shias in this opportunity, for delivering the message of Islam and propagating the sciences and virtues of Mohammad’s progeny (peace be upon them), were probably unprecedented.

In that time, propagation of the sciences and traditions of the holy progeny (peace be upon Him) became a trend. Learning and mentioning the traditions and narrations of the progeny (peace be upon Him), and quoting their virtues and moral qualities became common.

The poets penned the best poetries in the appraisal of the holy progeny and the purified leaders (peace be upon them), and disclosed the oppressions that occurred on them. Moreover, they wrote about their places of martyrdom and the demand of their rights. They are still considered among the best and most beautiful poetries of Arabic literature, to such an extent that Mamun himself used to write poetries praising Amirul Momineen (peace be upon Him).

These poetries – which included the mentioning of the right of the holy progeny (peace be upon Him), their merits and virtues, their sacrifices and their steadfastness – were a reminder of those bloods which were shed for Islam and they depicted the oppressions committed by the tyrant governing bodies upon the Prophet’s household (peace be upon Him). Therefore, these poetries developed a sense of devotion and love for the holy progeny (peace be upon Him) in the hearts, and they were propagated and recited at all places. Certainly, if the issue of Imam’s successorship wouldn’t have raised, this extensive literary, political and religious movement wouldn’t have started.

It is evident that these incidences were nothing but strong reactions on the oppression of Harun and the imprisonment of Imam Musa bin Jafar (peace be upon Him), which finally forced Mamun to change his political strategy. And that long duration of imprisonment and oppression, helped the holy progeny (peace be upon Him) to apparently move a step forward in the vast Islamic caliphate under the powerful rule of Abbasid dynasty, by their own hands. If Imam had chosen any other strategy, and had opted to come face to face with Mamun by way of revolution and war, he would have certainly faced many obstacles; and due to the unsuitability of the political and social conditions for the caliphate of someone like his holiness, the front of truth worshippers could be defeated and a suppression greater than the reign of Harun could occur; and such a great and incomparable opportunity for a revolution of thought would have lost.

         

2. Confession of Abbasid rulers about the rightfulness of the holy Household (peace be upon Him).

Many of the Abbasid caliphs, even after all their hatred and jealousy towards the holy progeny (peace be upon Him), quoted the virtues of the holy progeny (peace be upon Him) here and there, and considered them the true inheritors of the Prophet of Islam (peace be upon Him and His Progeny), and worthy of caliphate and leadership of Muslims. They couldn’t deny their virtues, knowledge and capabilities or accuse them for having undesirable behaviour. Therefore, it was only the love of status, power and kingdom, which forced them to usurp the caliphate and commit all those crimes and mass killings of the honourable Sayyids, as well as the persecution and torture of Shias.

After all this, until the time of Mamun, a general, formal and official announcement had not issued on this topic and the Abbasid caliphs, apparently, introduced themselves as worthy of caliphate and considered caliphate as their own right.

The issue of Imam’s successorship, was an official and formal confession, as well as an evidence which stroke off all the propagations and claims of Abbasid dynasty; and although Mamun did not move aside and hand over the caliphate, but it was generally understood as a confirmation against himself as he was seen as the usurper of caliphate.

The notable point was that Mamun – the caliph and ruler of Muslims, and the owner of the vast Islamic countries, someone who was the most learned person among the Abbasid rulers, and who used to dominate the renowned Sunni clerics in the delicate scientific and theosophical discussions – officially announced that between all the Muslims, from the Abbasid dynasty and the progeny of Abu Talib (peace be upon Him) and others, there was none more learned and more virtuous and worthier of caliphate, than the oppressed Imam (peace be upon Him) whom my father arrested, imprisoned and killed in the most dreadful and painful manner.

Mamun wanted to introduce himself before the people, with absolute cleverness, as someone who has recognized the right of Prophet’s household and Imam, and has handed over the caliphate to its real owner.

According to our belief, this incident was unparalleled in the history of the eye catching victories of the Shia sect, and more than what we imagine, it depicted the acceptance of Imam’s rightfulness inside the souls.

For the sake of his government’s welfare and in order to put away all the political accusations and constraint, and to end the pressure of the holy progeny’s spiritual influence, Mamun accepted the reality which was official denied by the governing system of both Umayyad dynasty and the Abbasid dynasty and the usurper caliphs; it was something that was organized by their extensive propagations. He ended the conflict that had aroused between them and the groups of their supporters, against the holy household (peace be upon Him), after the demise of Prophet (peace be upon Him and His Progeny) regarding the issue of caliphate. He officially accepted that in this conflict, the truth was with Ali (peace be upon Him) and Lady Fatima Zahra (peace be upon Her), and Ali’s progeny and his Shias.

The spirit and reality of this allegiance, has no interpretation except this, and Mamun accepted this truth apparently and due to the political pressure; and due to this announcement and official acceptance, truth became evident and falsehood became disgraced.

و مناقبُ شھدَ العدو بفضلھا                       و الفضلُ ما شھدت به الاعداء[8]

3. Welcoming of Imam Reda (peace be upon Him) by the people

The movement of Imam (peace be upon Him), which was official and apparently free in nature, from Medina to Khurasan, brought many beneficial impacts alongside itself; in such a way that throughout this lengthy journey, in which he crossed several big and small cities, sectors, rural areas and villages, an astonishing ecstasy and excitement could be witnessed and it made the Muslims who couldn’t express their dedicational sentiments for the holy household (peace be upon Him) until that time, disclose their unbroken liking and bonding with the Prophet’s progeny and lineage (peace be upon them). And among all the people, belonging from all classes, the word about the holy household (peace be upon Him), their virtues and positions, and the oppressions they had faced, began to spread.

The common men and many groups became extremely delightful and joyous after meeting Imam (peace be upon Him), because they considered the honour of meeting him same as the honour of meeting his grandfather, the holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny).

People used to gather in the passages, fields, mosques and all the places which fell on the route of his holiness (peace be upon Him), and with their presence, they wrote a new page in the Islamic history; and revived the method of the holy Prophet’s era of Prophet hood and the caliphate of Imam Ali (peace be upon Him).

People used to tell each other: how good it has become; truth has returned to its centre. Mamun himself wishes to provide the platform for transferring the caliphate to Imam (peace be upon Him). Mamun has said: after contemplation, research, study and analysis, I did not find anyone more appropriate, better and worthier than Imam (peace be upon Him) in the vast Islamic world![9]

There is no doubt in the fact that the greatest personality of the Islamic nation is Ali bin Musa Ar – Reda (peace be upon Him), but they wanted to officially hand over the right of Prophet’s progeny (peace be upon Him).

Wasn’t his father, Musa bin Jafar (peace be upon Him), the best among the entire nation? Did Harun know of anyone better and more learned and more pious than him? Certainly not. Wasn’t his grandfather, Jafar as – Sadiq (peace be upon Him), the unique pride of the Islamic Ummah? Didn’t Mansur recognize him as the inheritor of the Book’s knowledge and the chosen one by Allah?

Wasn’t Imam Mohammad Baqir (peace be upon Him) the opener of knowledge of the foremost and last? Wasn’t he whose advice had Abdul Malik Al – Marwan sought in that political and Islamic incident which had endangered the value and dignity of the Islamic nation and Muslims?[10]

All the noble Imams (peace be upon Him) were renowned personalities of the Islamic world; but may Allah curse such politics which only means the love of position and power, and as that great man said:

"لعن اللہ السیاسة و سینھا و ساس و کل لفظ اشتق من السیاسة"

{May Allah curse the word “As – Siyasah” and its alphabet “Seen” and the politician (Saas) and every word that is derived from the word “As – Siyasah”}

May Allah curse the love of position, kingdom and power!

The world – loving politicians do not fear in hiding the realities, concealing the virtues and capabilities of individuals, deny the truths, and imprisoning and killing the men of God.

This question rose for the people that how did Mamun set aside the way of all the politicians and appoint a kind – hearted, pure intender, and man who was well – wisher of the society as his crown prince? Lest it be a political strategy also?!

Lest it be another treacherous plot against the holy household (peace be upon Him)? Lest behind the curtain, other motives are hidden, and the fate of Imam (peace be upon Him) might also be the same as his oppressed father.

However, we should wait for the future. But the apparent case in this step, at present, depicts that Mamun has comprehended that it is the right of Ali’s progeny and no one is better than Ali bin Musa Ar – Reda (peace be upon Him). And there is no doubt in the fact that Mamun is fully aware of the truth.

People had many such conversations among them and Imam was the topic of discussion everywhere. Wherever Imam (peace be upon Him) placed his foot, people’ love and admiration for him increased, and a new soul was blown in the body of their faith and devotion. They used to visit Imam (peace be upon Him), witness the face of Allah’s messenger (peace be upon Him and His Progeny) in his face which made them weep, groan and wail; they used to recite poetry, celebrate and send Salawat.

Truthfully, which other more important incident could possibly revive the Shia sect and guide the people towards truth? Which scenario could be more beautiful, influential and attractive for people than the heart throbbing and heavenly face of Imam (peace be upon Him)?

If before the journey of Imam (peace be upon Him) from Medina to Marw, the household of Prophet (peace be upon Him and His Progeny) had introduced themselves, they would be immediately arrested and imprisoned, but due the grace of Imam’s existence, not only did this issue not occur, but instead, all the cities that fell on the path, got filled with excitement and rejoice; and when their eyes glistened with the beauty of Imam’s face, the poetry of Abi Nawas expressed their sentiments in the following way:

مطھرون نقیات جیوبھم (ثیابھم)              تتلی الصلاۃ علیھم اینما ذکروا

من لم یکن علویّاً حین تنسبه                  فما له من قدیم الدھر مفتخر

واللہِ لمّا براَ خلقاً فاَتقنه                        صفاکم واصطفاکم ایّھا البشر

فاَنتم الملا الاعلی و عندکم                    علم الکتاب و ما جاءت بہ السّور[11]

{They are chaste and pure – hearted people; whenever they are remembered, peaceful blessings are sent upon them. By Allah, no one more righteous than them have been ever witnessed, Almighty Allah chose you in purity and innocence; you are among the people of the kingdom of heaven, and you possess the Book’s knowledge and all that has arrived in the chapters of Quran. One who isn’t Alavi in his descent, no time will bear pride for his forefathers}.

 

4. Imam Reda’s outlook on the issue of different religions

Imam Reda’s journey towards Khurasan, was a suitable opportunity for the propagation of the Islamic knowledge and teachings – which was present near the Imams and was counted as the heritage of Prophet hood – and for bringing it within the reach of clerics and scholars.

The era of Mamun marked the beginning of Muslim awareness regarding the terminologies and schools of philosophy, which took place by the medium of translation of philosophical books into Arabic language. Mamun also benefitted from this interaction and he used to personally propagate and encourage it, which resultantly increased the disorientation of thoughts and instillation of objections and skepticisms in people’s beliefs and religious issues. On the other hand, discussions and debates between the Muslims and clerics of other religions became extensive and religious arguments became common.

In order to safeguard the beliefs of Muslims, and reject all sorts of skepticism, doubts and objections, and for the guidance of clerics, Imam Reda (peace be upon Him) showed great endeavor, and personal debated with renowned scholars of different religions, thus dominating and defeating everyone. The details of these debate sessions and arguments are recorded and registered[12] in the books of history and Hadith; and today, there are counted as the most important knowledge treasures in the art of dialectic, contention and reasoning of beliefs; and regularly the clerics and scholars benefit from them.

People used to present all sorts of doubts before his holiness (peace be upon Him) and hear satisfying and sufficient answers.

          The fame of Imam’s knowledge and virtues became widespread across the Islamic world; and this journey, with all its diffusions of knowledge, reformed the religious teachings, Islamic sciences, beliefs and jurisprudence. And due to this very reason, his holiness has been given the title of “Mujad’did Ra’s Me’a Thaniya”[13] (the reformist of second century).

          In the book ‘Uyoon e Akhbar ur – Reda’, which was compiled in less than one century of Imam’s demise, the author has made use of reliable and authentic chain of narrators. Therefore, to some extent, this book has depicted the greatness of Imam’s position of knowledge, his glory and his unparalleled personality.[14]

          The supreme Sunni clerics have also expressed their devotion for his holiness and considered him as one of the greatest saints. They have also penned numerous poetries praising his holiness (peace be upon Him).

          One of the traditions which has been narrated from his holiness (peace be upon Him), and is bright like the sun and extremely famous, is the Hadith of “Silsilah al – Dhahab” (Golden Chain). We would like to narrate this Hadith, due to its grace and blessing, and for expressing the amount of love, devotion and honour which people and clerics hold for Imam (peace be upon Him), and also for depicting the pride shown by the great teachers with regard to his holiness, and nevertheless, for a good ending of this discussion:

 

Hadith of “Silsilah al – Dhahab”

Neshabour is one of the populated cities of Khurasan and an important knowledge center, as well as the place of a group of renowned narrators and famous memorizers.

          When the glorious and grand caravan of Imam reached this city, it was welcomed with unprecedented dignity, honor and respect. Small and big, notorious and innocent, knowledgeable and illiterate, entirely everyone gathered for obtaining the honor and pride of meeting the beloved son of Prophet (peace be upon Him and His Progeny).

          Author of the book ‘Tareekh e Neshabour’ narrates: Imam was inside a palanquin than was placed above a mule. In the Bazar, Abu Zar’aa Razi and Mohammad bin Aslam Tusi, two chiefs and memorizers of narrations, arrived with a group of clerics, narrators and students, and said:

          “O my glorious master, the son of masters and chiefs, for the sake of your pure and noble forefathers, show us your blessed face and narrate a Hadith for us from your predecessors which they have taught you.”

          “His holiness halted the mule and commanded his servants: set aside the shade. The eyes of all men brightened by the sight of his blessed face. His holiness had his hairs on two sides, which hung at the back of his neck. Upon sighting the heart throbbing beauty of that divine saint, people became extremely ecstatic and emotional, some were crying, a few weeping, a group was rolling on the mud, while others were kissing the foot of Imam’s mule; each one expressing his devotion, and the sound of groaning increased.”

          “The chiefs and high status leaders cried: O people, be silent, and listen to that which is beneficial for you; do not disturb us with the sound of your groanings”.

Meanwhile, Abu Zar’aa and Mohammad bin Aslam (Muslim), were ready to pen down the Hadith.

          Imam (peace be upon Him) said:

          "I heard my father Musa b. Ja'far (a) say that I heard my father Ja'far b. Muhammad (a) say that I heard my father Muhammad b. 'Ali (a) say that I heard my father 'Ali b. al – Husayn (a) say that I heard my father Husayn b. 'Ali (a) say that I heard my father Amir al – Mu'minin 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) say that I heard Allah’s Messenger (s) say that I heard Gabriel say that I heard God say that 'the sentence 'There is no god but God' is my fortress, thus whomever enters my fortress, shall be safe from my punishment.'"  

Then he dropped the curtain of his palanquin and moved ahead.

          The author of “Tareekh e Neshabour” says: It was calculated that more than 20,000 people were penning this Hadith.

          Ahmad bin Hanbal, chief of the Hanabila sect and the compiler of the Musnad known as Musnad of Ahmad, says: If this chain of narration is recited over an insane person, he will be cured.[15] It shouldn’t remain untold that the quoted tradition is according to the narration of Ibn e Hajar al – Haytami al – Shafe’yi in his book “Al Sawa’iq al – Muhriqah”[16] and Shablinji in his book “Noor ul – Absar”[17]. Some of the expressions and sentences are as per “Al Sawa’iq al – Muhriqah” and others are as per “Noor ul – Absar”. If someone wishes to know about this Hadith’s chain of narrators and its text, he can refer to the books “Uyoon e Akhbar ar – Reda”[18] and “At – Tawheed”[19] of Sheikh Sudooq (may Allah have mercy on Him) and the book “Bihar ul – Anwar”[20] of Allama Majlisi (may Allah have mercy on Him), and rest of the authentic Shia books.

In the most complete text of this Hadith, another extremely interesting sentence has been mentioned: [as the Imam's (a) caravan began to move, he said aloud: "With its conditions, and I myself am one of those conditions."][21] It contains the reality of Wilayah (supremacy) and its connection with the faith of Oneness, i.e. there is no Lord except Allah. As we have the honour of explaining it in other works, we have summarized the discussion in this book.

 

 

 

  

 

         

                   

 

    

             

 

[1] Though, there is a difference of opinion among the historians and narrators; some say that it was the first of Ramadan, for some it is the second day, for a few the fourth, for some the sixth day, and a few others have mentioned the seventh day of Ramadan. It seems that the reason behind this conflict is that the successorship was accepted by Imam Reda (a.s.) on the first day of the month of Ramadan, whereas the allegiance was pledged with him officially on the sixth and seventh day of the same month.

                In order to gain information regarding the different sayings, refer to: Yaqubi, Tareekh, v. 2, p. 488; Tabri, Tareekh, v. 7, p. 139; Sadooq, Uyoon e Akhbar ur – Reda (a.s.), v. 2, p. 273; Mufeed, Masaar ush – Shia, p. 22; Mufeed, Al Irshad, v. 2, p. 261; Tabrisi, Aa’lam ul – Wara, v. 2, p. 85 – 86; Ibne Jauzi, Al Muntazim, v. 10, p. 94; Ibne Atheer Jazri, Al Kamil fit Tareekh, v. 6, p. 326; Ibn Taoos, Iqbal ul – Aa’mal, v. 1, p. 264; Arbili, Kashf ul – Ghumma, v. 3, p. 123; Ibn Katheer, Al Bidaya wan Nihaya, v. 10, p. 269; Kaf’ami, Al Misbah, p. 513; Majlisi, Bihar ul Anwar, v. 49, p. 128; v. 99, p. 43. 

[2] Abul Faraj al – Isfahani, in his book ‘Maqatil at – Talibeen’, has unveiled this crime in detail.

[3] In our view, this cause is not an intellectually and logically appropriate cause for Mamun’s step; because both the rule and the caliphate were the legitimate rights of Imam Reda (a.s.) and accepting them wouldn’t diminish anything from the status of his holiness. People also concentrated towards the holy progeny (a.s.) only because they considered Islamic leadership as their legitimate right, and they believed that the progress of Islam on its actual path was related to the governance and leadership of the Imams (a.s.), who were appointed by Allah (s.w.t.) and His Prophet (p.b.u.h.). And it is evident that motive behind the governance of Imams was nothing but actual reforms and guaranteeing social justice along with the welfare and betterment of common people; whereas the motive of the usurpers’ rule was to obtain their personal gains through tyranny and colonization.  

[4] As per the 40th chapter of the book ‘Uyoon e Akhbar ur – Reda’, due to this very reason, some even questioned Imam (a.s.) personally and received a satisfying and contenting answer. Sudooq, Uyoon e Akhbar ur – Reda (a.s.), v. 1, p. 150 – 152.

[5] Tabri, Tareekh, v. 7, p. 132; Sadooq, Uyoon e Akhbar ur – Reda (a.s.), v. 1, p. 176, 194; Qutb e Rawandi, Al Khara’ij wal Jara’ih, v. 2, p. 661; Majlisi, Bihar ul Anwar, v. 49, p. 91 – 95.

[6] Refer to: Tabrisi, Aa’lam ul Waraa’, v. 2, p. 72; Ibn Shahr Aashob, Manaqib e Aal e Abi Talib, v. 3, p. 474.

[7] Chapter Al – Anbiya, verse 26 and 27. Although this verse has been revealed apparently regarding the angels, but in the Mutawatir traditions, it has been interpreted for the infallible Leaders (a.s.).

[8] And those virtues whose supremacy was witnessed by the enemy, and actual superiority and virtue is that which is admitted by the enemies also. 

[9] Tabri, Tareekh, v. 7, p. 139; Ibn Jauzi, Al Muntazim, v. 10, p. 94; Ibn Atheer Jazri, Al Kamil fit Tareekh, v. 6, p. 326.

[10] Bayhaqi, Al Mahasin wal Masawi, v. 2, p. 232 – 236; Damiri, Hayaat ul Haywan, p. 24.

[11] Sadooq, Uyoon e Akhbar ur – Reda (a.s.), v. 1, p. 155; Ibn Shehr Aashob, Manaqib e Aal e Abi Talib, v. 3, p. 474; Tabri, Basharatul Mustafa, p. 134; Majlisi, Bihar ul Anwar, v. 49; p. 148.

[12] Sadooq, Uyoon e Akhbar ur – Reda (a.s.), v. 2, p. 120 – 182; Tabrisi, Al Ihtejaaj, v. 2, p. 170 – 237.

[13] The Reformer of second century, belief in a Reformer, as per the famous tradition from the chain of Sunnis, is that the Islamic world, in every century, in chase of luxuries and abatements, by the grace of Allah, will be provided with a Reviving Reformist, who will turn laziness into power and anonymity into fame. He will revive Islam and strengthen the Muslims. Such thoughts, not as a part of a religious belief, are common among the Shias as well.

[14] Refer to: Sadooq, Uyoon e Akhbar ur – Reda (a.s.).

[15] Refer to: Zarandi, Ma’arij ul – Wusool, p. 175; Shablanji, Noor ul Absar, p. 155; Lakhnawi, Abaqaat ul – Anwar, v. 9, p. 384; v. 14, p. 30, 32;  Mar’ashi Najafi, Sharh e Ihqauq ul – Haq, v. 12, p. 389, 391, 393, 580; v. 28, p. 615; Milani, Nafahaat ul – Azhaar, v. 8m p. 388; v. 10, p. 69.

[16] Haytami, Al Sawa’iq al – Muhriqah, v. 2, p. 594 – 595 (as per the narration of the book Tareekh e Neshabour, by Hakim Neshabouri).

[17] Shablinji, Noor ul Absar, p. 154 – 155 (as per the narration of the book Tareekh e Neshabour, by Hakim Neshabouri).

[18] Sadooq, Uyoon e Akhbar ar – Reda (a.s.), v. 2, p. 143 – 145, chapter 37.

[19] Sadooq, At – Tawheed, p. 24 – 25, first chapter, notes 21, 22 and 23.

[20] Majlisi, Bihar ul Anwar, v. 3, p. 7 ; v. 49, p. 123.

[21] Sadooq, Uyoon e Akhbar ar – Reda (a.s.), v. 1, p. 145; Sadooq, At – Tawheed, p. 25.

موضوع: 
Wednesday / 10 August / 2016