رسول الله صلى الله علیه و آله :شَعبانُ شَهری و رَمَضانُ شَهرُ اللّهِ فَمَن صامَ شَهری كُنتُ لَهُ شَفیعا یَومَ القِیامَةِ پیامبر صلى الله علیه و آله :شعبان ، ماه من و رمضان ماه خداوند است . هر كه ماه مرا روزه بدارد ، در روز قیامت شفیع او خواهم... بیشتر
دوشنبه: 1401/05/17

Items that are found

Items that are found

Items that are found

 

If someone finds something but does not take it, then no special responsibilities fall upon him.

  1. If an item is found, then the following rules will apply to it:
  1. If the item does not have any special signs which would help one in finding its’ owner, then one is allowed to take it for ones’ self, but according to Ihtiyat Mustahab, one should give it away as Sadaqa on behalf of the owner.
  2. If the value of the item is worth less than 12.6 chickpeas of coined silver, and the owner is not known, then one can keep it for oneself. However, once the owner has been found, then according to Ihtiyat Wajib, one must replace or return the item to its owner.
  3. If the value of the item is not less than 12.6 chickpeas of coined silver and it has some special signs on it that would help to identify the owner, then for the first week, an announcement must be made every day, and each week after that, it must be announced once per week. In the event that after one year of announcing, the owner still is not found, one is allowed to keep it for the owner so that whenever he is found, the item can be given back to him. However, according to Ihtiyat Mustahab, one should give it to a poor person, other than a Sayyid, as Sadaqa.

    2.If one knows that announcing (the lost item) is of no benefit, or there is no hope of finding the owner, then it is not necessary to announce (the lost item), but one can not keep the item for oneself.

موضوع:

Lending and Borrowing

Lending and Borrowing

Lending and Borrowing

 

Lending of something means that someone gives his own property to another person so that he may make use of it, and in exchange, one gets nothing back; for example, a person gives his bike to another person, so that the person may go to his house and return.

  1. Someone who lends something to another person can take it back whenever he wants to, and the person who has borrowed the item can give it back to its owner whenever he wishes to.
  2. If that which was lent out becomes lost or damaged, then in the event that in the protection of the item care was shown, or in its use, excessive care was shown, then one is not responsible (for the item). However, if one was negligent in taking care of the item, or in its use excessive care was not shown, then compensation must be paid.
  3. If it was previously specified, that if anything happens to the property being borrowed then the person borrowing the item would be responsible for it, then if anything happens to that property, one must compensate for it.

موضوع:

Loans

Loans

Loans

 

Giving a loan is one of the Mustahab acts that has been highly emphasized in the Qur'an and Ahadith, and on the Day of Judgement, the one who had given a loan, will be highly rewarded.

 

The Divisions of Giving a Loan

 

1. Durational Loan: At the time of giving a loan, it is specified when the loan will be paid back.

2. Non – Durational  Loan: The time when a loan will be paid back is not specified.

موضوع:

Cancelling a Transaction

Cancelling a Transaction

 

Cancelling a Transaction

 

  1. In some instances, the seller or buyer is allowed to cancel the transaction. Some of these instances include:
  1. The buyer or the seller has been cheated.
  2. If at the time of the transaction, it had been specified that for a specific period, either parties, or even one of the two parties is allowed to cancel the transaction. For example, at the time of buying and selling it is stated that if either person has some sort of doubt (about the transaction), then he has three days (once the deal is made) to break the contract.
  3. The seller and the buyer have not separated from each other. For example, a person purchases something from a store, then before he leaves the store, he is allowed to cancel the transaction.
  4. The object that had been bought was defective, and after the transaction, it was noticed.
  5. The seller explained the item to the person buying the product, who himself did not see the product’s specialties, and later it was noticed that it was not as the seller had explained it to be. For example, one was told that a notebook has 200 pages, and later it was found to have less than this amount.

2. If after a transaction, one notices a defect in the product and right away does not cancel the transaction, then later on, one does not have the right to break the transaction.

موضوع:

The Disposal of Zakat

The Disposal of Zakat

The Disposal of Zakat

 

There are eight ways in which the Zakat can be disposed of; and one can dispose of one’s Zakat in all or some of these ways. The following are some of the examples of these places:

  1. It can be given to the poor and destitute.
  2. It can be given to those non – Muslims who, if Zakat is given to them, may become inclined to Islam or they may help Muslims in the time of war.
  3. It may be spent in the way of Allah; meaning, in those things that have a common benefit for the Muslims or a benefit for Islam - for example, building a well, bridge or Masjid.

موضوع:

Zakat

Zakat

Zakat

 

One of the other important economical responsibilities of Muslims is the paying of Zakat. As for the importance of Zakat, it suffices to point out that in the Glorious Qur'an, after the mentioning of Salat, Zakat is mentioned. Paying Zakat is also counted as one of the signs of faith and righteous actions.

In countless hadith from Prophet and the Infallible Household of Prophet (peace be upon Them), it has been narrated that: “One who does not pay Zakat, is out of the religion of Islam.” Zakat, just like Khums, has its own specific instances. One part of Zakat is a tax on the body and life, that once a year, those people who have the ability to pay this tax (from the view point of property), it becomes Wajib on them on the day of ‘Eid ul – Fitr. The rules related to this type of Zakat were explained at the end of the section on Fasting.

The other division of Zakat is the Zakat on wealth, but this does not mean that it is necessary or includes all the property of a person – rather Zakat is only Wajib on nine things.

  1. Things that Zakat is Wajib to be paid on are the following:
    Wheat, barley, dates, raisins, camels, cows, goats, gold and silver.
  2. Zakat becomes Wajib in the event that the item that Zakat must be paid on reaches a certain quantity. These amounts have been given in the following table:

 

Type of Property

Amount

Amount of Zakat That must be Paid

      Wheat

      Barley

      Dates

      Raisins

 

 

Approximately 885 kg

   1/10 in the event that the crops were irrigated with rain water and water from a river.

 1/20 in the event that the crops were irrigated by hand watering, or by a jug, or by a water pump.

   3/40 in the event that the crops were irrigated by both methods.

 

       Camels

5 camels

Up to 25 camels

26 Camels

     One sheep

     One sheep for every 5 Camels

     One camel that has entered in its second year

       Cows

30 cows

1 calf that has just entered into its second year

       Sheep

40 Sheep

1 sheep

       Gold

15 Mithqal

1/40th

       Silver

105 Mithqal

1/40th

 

A brief note:

Camels, cows and sheep also have other quantities (that Zakat becomes Wajib on), and for a complete listing of these rules, one can refer to the Tawdheeh Al – Masael, rules 1918 – 1932.

موضوع:

The Spending of Khums

The Spending of Khums

The Spending of Khums

 

The Khums is to be divided into two portions - half of which is called Sahm Imam az – Zaman (May Allah Hasten his Appearance) and must be given to the Mujtahid who is Jami’ al – Sharait or his representative - and the other half must be given to poor Sayyids, Sayyids who are orphaned or a Sayyid who has been stranded on a journey (referred to as Sahm as – Sadat).

موضوع:

Khums

Khums

Khums

 

One of the economic responsibilities of the Muslims is to pay the Khums; which means that on certain items, 1/5 or 20% (of the value of that item) must be paid to a Mujtahid, which will be used for specific purposes.

  1. Khums is Wajib on seven things:
  1. Profit or gains from earnings
  2. Minerals
  3. Treasures
  4. Spoils of war
  5. Gems that have been obtained from the sea by diving.
  6. The Halal wealth which is mixed with Haram wealth.
  7. The land which a Kafir Dhimmi[1] (A non-Muslim living under the protection of the Islamic Government) purchases from a Muslim.

2. Just like Salat and Fasting, the paying of Khums is one of the Wajibat, and anyone who possesses one of the seven things listed above, must act according to that which will follow (in relation to the paying of Khums).

One of the instances of Khums that include most people in the society is giving Khums on that which exceeds a person and his families’ yearly expenses (benefit/profit from working). Islam respects a person working and earning, and thus places preference over securing one’s needs over that of paying the Khums. Therefore, one who can secure his (financial) needs from his earnings, if after securing his (financial) needs nothing remains at the end of the year, then Khums will not be obligatory on him.
But, if after calculating all the normal expenses for his life (and the maintenance of his family) according to his (social) status and needs, and without being extravagant or miserly, if something remains at the end of the year, then 1/5 (or 20%) of that which remains must go towards the specified expense (of Khums), and 4/5 (80%) of the amount that is left can be put into one’s savings.

 

[1] The Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians that have made a contract with the Islamic ruler that they will pay a certain amount of money in tax, and that they will accept the specific conditions (that are listed in the detailed books of fiqh), are referred to as Kafir Dhimmi, and their lives and properties are protected (in exchange for paying the tax and accepting the conditions).

موضوع:

The Items that can be given for Zakatul Fitrah

The Items that can be given for Zakatul Fitrah

The Items that can be given for Zakatul Fitrah

The items that can be given as Zakatul Fitrah are things such as wheat, barely, dates, raisins, rice, corn and other things such as these; and if one gives the value of these things in cash, it too will be sufficient.

موضوع:

The Amount of Zakatul Fitrah

The Amount of Zakatul Fitrah

The Amount of Zakatul Fitrah

For oneself and those who are one’s dependents; such as one’s spouse and children, one must give one Saa’ per person, which is approximately three kilograms (as Zakat).

موضوع:

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