بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم إنّا لله و إنّا إلیه راجعون درگذشت اندیشمند عالیقدر، شخصیت برجسته مسلمانان اندونزی، مدافع حریم ولایت و امامت علیهم‌السلام، مرحوم دکتر جلال الدین رحمت رحمة‌الله علیه موجب تأسف و تأثر گردید. آن شخصیت والامقام، عمر خود را...
دوشنبه: 1399/12/11 - (الاثنين:17/رجب/1442)

Imam Jawad (a.s.) - The Master of Knowledge and Generosity
An article by Grand Ayatollah Saafi Golpaygani on the occasion of Imam Jawad's Martyrdom

Imam Jawad (a.s.), the Master of Knowledge and Generosity

Imam Jawad (a.s.) was the true heir of his honorable ancestors in the case of his noble virtues and desirable attributes, his knowledge and cognition, his piety and god-wariness. His greatness and glory was renowned between all classes of people and the great intellectual and religious personalities of his era expressed immense humility and humbleness in his presence.

Renowned reporters and revered clerics felt proud of acquiring knowledge from his holiness and considered him the solver of the most difficult intellectual matters.

There are numerous narrations that prove the virtues and nobilities of his holiness and serve as an evidence to prove his Imamate.[1]

Even though the life of Imam Jawad (peace be upon him) was not long lasting and he did not even complete twenty six years, several sciences were acquired by the world from him and numerous intellectual sessions and debates were held between his holiness and the great clerics of his time, like the intellectual debate and argument with the chief justice Yahya bin Aktham, in the presence of the Abbasid Caliph, Mamun, and a group of people from the Abbasid dynasty and others. In response to his question, his holiness mentioned so many sections of the matter that the chief justice was left astonished and embarrassed. Then he described the rulings of all the sections himself. Then his holiness – as per the suggestion of Mamun – asked Yahya a question whose answer he was unable to give and requested Imam to answer the question and he gave the answer that made it clear for all the Abbasid family that just like Mamun said, despite his young age, Imam was the most learned and most knowledgeable among all the clerics and Allah (s.w.t.) blessed him with this virtue and excellence.[2]

According to the narration of Ibn Shahr Ashob in his book Al-Jilaa’ wa Al-Shifa, among the debates and intellectual arguments of his holiness, was the debate which he had with a group of scholars at the age of eight in which he gave the answers of the most difficult issues.[3]

Imamate in childhood and young age

Attaining the status of Imamate before reaching the age of maturity was officially unprecedented till that time and among the Imams, no one sat on the throne of Imamate at such an early age, but it is not unprecedented among the prophets and divine apostles since Prophet Jesus and Prophet Yahya (peace be upon them) reached the position of apostleship in childhood. The holy Qur’an mentions regarding Prophet Jesus (a.s.):

 “[Jesus] said, ‘Indeed, I am the servant of Allah. He has given me the Scripture and made me a prophet’.” [4]

And it said regarding Prophet Yahya:

 “And We gave him judgement [while yet] a boy” [5]

It was always accepted by the elites and the common people that the knowledge and intellect of the Imams (peace be upon them) and their understanding power and excessive teachings are not due to learning and passage of time and physical growth, and this point is confirmed by authentic and reliable history books also.

From their childhood, such astonishing incidents and stories have been reported that prove the extraordinary excellence, genius, supernatural virtues and brilliance of each one of them. Even the likes of Muawiyah, Yazid and Abdullah bin Umar have spoken about their divine knowledge, and someone like Abu Hanifa has asked jurisprudential questions and received accurate answers from Imam Musa bin Jafar (peace be upon him) when he was merely seven years old.[6]

One who has studied the life of these great personalities and the sciences that have been issued from them in their childhood and after the age of puberty will easily conclude that all this knowledge and cognition cannot be attained by way of learning and education.

How can the infinite knowledge of the commander of the faithful (a.s.) in all the fields of Islamic sciences, rights, theology, theosophy etc. be acquired by academic means and which educational institute other than the institute of the holy Prophet (peace be upon him) can have a graduate like Imam Ali (a.s.) in that time and which teacher could train such an unparalleled student and who but Ali (a.s.) could contain the knowledge of apostleship and become the gate of Prophet’s city of knowledge?

The knowledge of all the companions and students of the holy Prophet’s school when compared to the knowledge of Ali (a.s.) was like a drop compared to an ocean.

This knowledge is a blessing of Allah (s.w.t.) for them and something they inherited from Allah’s messenger (peace be upon him) and if the issuance of such sciences are astonishing from young people, it is also astonishing from the old. Do all the grownups have the potential to contain all this knowledge? Have the mature scholars responded to such unprecedented questions from the people so quickly and accurately?

In this regard, there is no difference between a child of seven years and an old man of seventy. Both of them must possess special aptitude and excellent capabilities in order to acquire such knowledge and be divinely inspired, understood and reported for it.

Just like Mansoor (the caliph) said regarding Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (a.s.) that his holiness was someone for whom the Almighty Allah (s.w.t.) said:

 “Then we caused to inherit the Book those We have chose of Our servants” [7]

Each one of our Imams were chosen servants of God who were given the book and the knowledge of the book by Allah and the nation will never be deprived of such a personality from the progeny of Prophet (peace be upon him and his household) ever.

The narrations of Thaqalayn, Safinah[8], Amaan[9] and the narration “Fi Kulli Khalfin min Ummati”[10] as well as other reports have all served as the confirmer and approver off this subject.

Even the passage of time has proved that other than these sacred personalities, no other individual is the subject of these narrations and it is them whose knowledge is from the divine knowledge and whose wisdom is a special gift of Allah, and Muslims will never find true knowledge in East or West but something that has been spread by them.

 

 

 

[1] Refer to: Kulayni, Al-Kafi, Chapter “Al-Isharah wan Nas Ala Abi Jafar Al-Thani (a.s.), v. 1, p. 320-323 and chapter “Maulid Abi Jafar Mohammad bin Ali Al-Thani (a.s.), Kulayni, Al-Kafi, v. 1, p. 492_497.

[2] The details of this historic and unprecedented debate session is reported in the authentic Sunni books like: Al-Sawaiq Al-Mohriqa (Haythami, v. 2, p. 597-598), Al-Ithaaf Bi Hubbil Ashraf (Shabrawi, p. 350-355), Noor Al-Absar (Shablanji, p. 161), Tazkirat Al-Khawas (Sibt Ibn Jawzi, p. 321) etc. and also in the Shia books like: Manaqib Aal Abi Talib (v. 3, p. 488-489), Al-Irshad (Mufid, v. 2, p. 281-289), I’lam Al-Wara (Tabarsi, v. 1, p. 101-105) and Kashf al-Ghumma (Arbili, v. 3, p. 146-148) and more than hundreds of books on the subjects of narration, biography and history.

[3] Ibn Shahr Ashob, Manaqib Aal Abi Talib, v. 3, p. 489-490.

[4] Maryam, 30.

[5] Maryam, 12.

[6] Refer to: Ibn Shahr Ashob, Manaqib Aal Abi Talib, v. 3, p. 429; Majlisi, Bihar Al-Anwar, v. 48, p. 106.

[7] Fatir, 32.

[8] Saduq, Kamal Al-Deen, p. 241; Hur Aamili, Wasael Al-Shia, v. 27, p. 34; Tabari Imami, Al-Mustarshid, p.578; Hakim Neshapuri, Al-Mustadrak, v. 2, p. 343.

[9] Refer to: Aman Al-Ummah min Dhalal wal Ikhtelaf, written by the author of this book, p. 169-171.

[10] Himyari Qommi, Qurb Al-Asnaad, p. 77; Saduq, Kamal Al-Deen, p. 221; Karajaki, Kanz Al-Fawa’id, p. 152.

موضوع:

Monday / 1 March / 2021
Recollection of memory by His Holiness Grand Ayatollah Saafi Golpaygani on the occasion of the glorious pilgrimage of Hajj, 1432 H.
A memory regarding the glorious pilgrimage of Hajj

In the name of Allah, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful

The Manifestation of Nation’s Sanctification

From the Rituals of Hajj and the House of Revelation

 

The holy pilgrimage of the year 1432 H, was of immense pride and glory for all the Muslims around the world. The dignity, composure, honor and respect of Muslims for the ritual of Hajj and the two sacred shrines in this great and unparalleled gathering was unprecedented. In the meanwhile, as the convulsive and blazing countries and the politics of the nations are extremely active in favor of their political motives, it was feared that their political differences would also become evident in this divine ritual.

Safeguarding the sanctity and glory of Hajj and the divine city of peace, along with containing more than two million people from different nations, creeds and countries in the present conditions was possible only due to the blessings of the faith and honor of one and half billion Muslims for the sanctity of Islam which by the will and power of Allah Almighty, resulted in this miraculous manner, with peace, tranquility and pride, as though no incident occurred anywhere and the political issues did not create any conflict. It became evident that the sanctity of Hajj - the great obligatory pilgrimage - and the two holy shrines are much higher than any politics of nations. Everyone consider the holy shrine as a sacred place for peace and these political, geographical, racial or sectarian differences cannot harm it in any way.

The two holy shrines are important for everyone and especially in the season of Hajj, it is the city, nation and home for everyone, and no one holds superiority over others. Albeit, the different nations have also coordinated fully in preserving this honor and have acted thoughtfully, as though there exists no differences between them. They all depicted that the two holy shrines, the holy mosque, the Prophet’s mosque and the green dome, all belong to the great Islamic heritage and history, and is the land of revelation, whose sanctity and honor must be safeguarded by everyone.

We hope that this ritual is performed each year with more and more glory and like this year, all the Muslims participate in it overlooking all their politics, and the personal inclination of the authorities towards a specific sect does not obstruct the actions of others who wish to follow their sect and jurisprudential school of thought. Enjoining the good deeds and forbidding the evil by a particular sect must not fade the color of this beautiful pilgrimage and the projection of this Islamic existence that astonishes the world and all the politicians of the world shall increase year after year.

 

موضوع:

Humanity is indebted to the intellectual movement of Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him)
A piece of work by Grand Ayatollah Saafi Golpaygani on the occasion of the martyrdom of Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him)

Humanity is indebted to the intellectual movement of Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him)

A piece of work by Grand Ayatollah Saafi Golpaygani on the occasion of the martyrdom of Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him)

 

In the name of Allah, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful.

In the first half of the second century Hijri, Imam Jafar Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) inaugurated a school which was unprecedented in Islam and even after that era, such a school was not witnessed. It was the school and institution of his holiness that gave this world the greatest scholars of Qur’anic sciences, jurisprudence, Islamic theosophy, chemistry etc. The Shia jurisprudence which comprises of thousands of laws and rules, Islamic practical and ethical programs, is mostly rather totally indebted to the endless knowledge of Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him). In the likes of Hajj rulings, which is one of the greatest obligations of Islam and consists of sublime philosophies, the Islamic world had benefitted from the vast ocean of Imam Sadiq’s (peace be upon him) knowledge and as Abu Hanifa said, ‘We are all the family of Imam Jafar Sadiq’, and according to the Hadith reported from his holiness in Sahih Muslim, one among the Ahl-e-Sunnah books, he is the source of approximately four hundred clauses regarding the rules off Hajj that are followed by the Sunni sect.

Indeed! In the political circumstances and conditions of Islamic countries of that time, his holiness Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him) got an important opportunity to lead the greatest intellectual movement and open a school where the most renowned Islamic clerics attended and participated as students and learners of Hadith and sciences.

The sciences of Imam Jafar Sadiq (peace be upon him) dominated all the intellectual Islamic countries and societies, and the clerics of Iraq, Arabia, Khorasan and Levant gained knowledge from him and in the cases of intellectual doubts and problems related to Islamic issues, it was his holiness alone who cleared all the doubts and solved all the problems.

That which requires more attention and contemplation is that the leadership of his holiness is not confined to Islamic sciences, but he has trained students in all the different sciences such as astrology, physics, mathematics, medical science, anatomy, psychology, chemistry, botany and other sciences like these, ones who were famous and renowned in these arts; and those researches, narrations and books which remain of him today serve as the pride of Islamic libraries and books, such as Tauheed of Mufaddal, epistle of Ihleeljeh and the debates of his holiness with atheists and all such books stand witness to this discourse that the institute of his holiness was like a university in which departments for different sciences were established and in every school and college, discussions, lectures and researches were done regarding a specific science.

For instance, one of the sciences which was inarguably taught by his holiness Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him) and had his special attention on it, was the science of chemistry, and from that great university, a genius named Jabir bin Hayyan graduated. If from the time of Jabir bin Hayyan till today, we would have given importance to the findings, studies, researches and intellectual discussions that this man benefitted from the sixth Imam and other sciences which were required for the civilized and advanced societies, then today, in the field of materialistic civilization, we would not be dependent on the west, Europe and America, because all they have is a result of Islamic governance and its sublime principles as well as the blessings of the efforts of Muslim scholars.

That same student had expertise in most of the Islamic sciences and medical science, anatomy, astrology, astronomy, physics, environmental studies, mathematics, chemistry, philosophy, logic, ethics, history, literature and poetry, zoology, botany, arms industry etc.

The same scholar who openly declared ten centuries prior to the famous theory of the English physicist, chemist, naturalist Jon Dalton, regarding the union between two elements in his book named (Al Ma’rifa Bis Sifat Al-Ilahiya wal Hikmat Al-Falsafiyah) that the pride of discovering this theory is the fortune of Jabir, not Jon Dalton.

Indeed! One of the students of Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him) is the same Jabir bin Hayyan among whose great works, that proves his intellectual and scientific genius, is the discovery of a light ink that will help in recitation in the dark and that was utilized for writing important and invaluable books.

To sum it up, our intention is that each student of this great university is individually sufficient for proving its unparalleled greatness. This school and great university has not just compelled the Shia scholars but all the senior scholars among the adversaries of the institute of the holy progeny (peace be upon him) on confessing with all explicitness regarding Imam Sadiq that he was the most learned and knowledgeable one. Abu Hanifa, the head of Hanafi sect said, ‘I have not seen anyone more learned than Jafar bin Mohammad”.

Najashi has reported from Ahmad bin Esa Ash’ari in his book of Rejal that he said, ‘I went to Kufa seeking the knowledge of Hadith and reached the service of Hasan bin Ali Washa there. I told him, ‘Give me the book of Alaa bin Zarin and Aban bin Othman Ahmar so that I can duplicate from them; he gave me those two books. I said: Grant me the permission for narration. He said: May Allah have mercy on you, you are in such hurry. Take it with you and write down, then bring it back to me and read for me so that I can listen and then grant you the permission for narration. I said: I do not feel secured from the forthcoming time for myself. Hasan bin Washa said: How strange! If I knew that narrations have such seekers and customers, I would have gather more than what I have. I have seen 900 Sheikhs in the Kufa mosque who used to say unanimously: Jafar bin Mohammad narrated for me”.

Really, what kind of a school and great university it was that compelled both the supporters and the enemies towards astonishment and surprise, and with the passage of time, it showed why Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him and his household) used to say several times, ‘My household and my progeny’; it was for these positions and sciences and grades which they held, but unfortunately, politics moved forward in such a way that it blocked the public reference towards the holy Progeny (peace be upon them) to such an extent that the likes of Bukhari has not even reported one single Hadith from his holiness Imam Jafar Sadiq (peace be upon him).

We must understand the importance of this school of thought and this precious treasure of knowledge and teachings, and we must all learn from this great university and during the days of his holiness’ martyrdom, we must participate in the mourning sessions of his martyrdom and honor them with utmost respect and reverence.

 

موضوع:

A Major Treason For The Destruction Of Islamic History
THE INTERNATIONAL DAY OF BAQEE’

 

 

 

A MAJOR TREASON FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF ISLAMIC HISTORY

 

A WRITING BY GRAND AYATULLAH SAAFI GOLPAYGANI ON THE EVENT OF EIGHTH SHAWWAL

 

THE INTERNATIONAL DAY OF BAQEE’

 

 

From more than fourteen centuries until today, Baqee’ has continued to be a religious sanctuary for Muslims, a centre of awareness and a memorial of the great Islamic personalities.

This graveyard, after the holy shrine of Prophet (peace be upon him), is one of the significant places of Islamic history which proves and confirms the existence of historic personalities of Islam. Approximately 10 thousand companions of the holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) are buried in this cemetery.

 

Anger of Muslim Majority upon the humiliation of Islamic History

 

In spite of all the greatness this holy place holds, its present condition is extremely disdainful, and the humiliation of the men and great personalities that are buried in this graveyard is extremely unfortunate and painful.

Apart from a group of people known as the Wahhabis, who constitute merely a minority of Muslims and have come into existence with the support of the colonist powers like Britain, and a group of people who are unaware of the realities behind the incidents and the interference of politics in the affairs which propagate deceitful advertisements, a vast majority of Muslims is extremely saddened and hurt by this disgraceful and humiliating act.

The graves of ancestors and great personalities are not humiliated and disrespected anywhere in the entire world, and wherever the tradition of burying the dead exists, their graves and cemeteries are also highly respected.

 

Beginning of a treacherous plot

 

The foundation of the plot for demolishing the Islamic sanctuaries and memorials was an extremely deep and treacherous one, which was laid by the enemies to eradicate the proofs, evidences and traces of Islamic history. When they were trying to gain dominance over Islamic countries by division and sectarianism, like Ali Mohammad Shirazi and Husain Ali Noori were chosen in Iran with the claims of Babism, Mehdavism, Prophet-hood and even divinity; in India, Ghulam Ahmad Qadiyani brought the Ahmadiyah sect into being; in the Arabia, they created the Wahhabi sect and made Mohammad bin Wahab their agent. Their most important motive, apart from looting the oil resources, was to destroy the traces of Islam, which also included the holy shrine of Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him and his progeny).

 

The significant role played by the historical monuments in the recognition of civilisations

 

With the help of the efforts and endeavour of the archaeologists that began some time ago and continues to reach excellence day by day, another significant source of history and recognition of nations has been added. Even though this source was a topic of discussion even in the past, but it did not have the current depth and extensiveness. In our era, one of the most significant sources of history and recognition of the conditions of nations and tribes, is the traces and monuments left behind them, which are discovered even by excavations; buildings, places of worship, graves, coins, vessels, jewelleries, works of art etc. are considered to be one of the greatest references of civilizations and the social circumstances of nations today.

Fortunately, the Islamic history is extremely reliable and authentic from its historical aspect on the basis of narrations and traditions. From the beginning of Islamic era itself, the recording of history, narrations of Hadith and quoting of different incidents had begun, and the events and happening have been registered and recorded. Such vast gaps which cause the negligence of history have not occurred in the history of Islam. Similarly, such incidences have not taken place which could result in the deletion of historical books and the creation of a vacuum. The journey of Islamic history is evident and known from all the aspects. Historical inferences and deductions are completely reliable and authentic on the basis of the studies done on historical records and narrations. Inarguably, the part of our history which is, for instance, related to one century ago, is totally relevant with that part which is related to thirteen or fourteen centuries ago. It has no difference in its certainty and firmness. At times, the second section is more reliable and its documentation in more authentic than the first one. In short, the scholars and specialist people can gain cognition of the social circumstances, and of the realities and incidents which have laid an impact on the fate of this nation, by means of these historical records. Truthfully, if we wish to write down the history of this current century, we cannot go beyond the boundaries of the historical writings of the Islamic historians.   

Even from the aspect of confirmations, external and original evidences, and the remaining traces of incidents, the Islamic history is extremely rich, wholesome and possesses very firm proofs. With this respect also, how much ever a person might be a late believer, and does not wish to deny a few realities, out of his own intentions, or create doubts and scepticism, in the history of Islam, especially those sections which are related to the introduction of the basis of prophethood, the incident of reappearance, the Islamic revolution, the biography of Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him and his progeny) and other significant issues, any kind of doubt and scepticism is not acceptable and not worthy of paying attention.  

Although the history of Islam and Muslims is the most authentic history among all the religions and human societies, or rather, according to some historians, the only religion which has a reliable and authentic history is Islam. From the perspective of these historic evidences and confirmations, whose protection is especially important for the distant future, this religion is extremely rich and filled with external and original evidences. It means that all the important areas of Islamic history and Muslims are confirmed and approved by the shrines, sanctuaries, monuments, graves, mosques and the geographical condition of countries and territories. In the widespread territories of the Islamic world, we can witness the traces of Muslim civilization and their victories everywhere. Even in the countries like Spain which, after the Golden Islamic Era, faced such an unfortunate fate due to the mercilessness and barbarianism of Christians, and such tribunals of inspections, torture, group executions, and other atrocities, the traces of Islamic civilization are presented before the world today also. If you go through the books such as “Al Aasar al-Andalusia al-Baqiya”, you can get to the depth of this issue to some extent. A great portion of the enormous Spanish budget is guaranteed by the income earned through the tourists and travellers from all over the world who visit this country to witness the monuments of Islamic era.

 

Islamic History and the Two Holy Sanctuaries

 

Due to the aspect explained above, Mecca and Medina hold more importance and significance than any other place. The traces and monuments of these two cities and their surroundings are the sources and origin of not only our history but the history of all the Abrahamic religions. Apart from the spiritual and religious aspects, it would not be exaggeration to regard these two cities as the great Museums of the Islamic world and revelation.

Before the series of demolitions done by the Wahhabis, these two cities had such monuments whose nooks and corners told the stories of great Islamic prophet’s history, and the invaluable traces of his life history and the endeavours of his holiness in the path of preaching the revelation and the message of Islam.

Such monuments which were all a part of the series of authentic Islamic history and the past of the two holy sanctuaries, and which introduced the chain of Prophet’s lineage, and even reported the circumstances of the era of ignorance.

In short, the entire mosque of Medina, the holy Mosque of Mecca, the city of Medina and Mecca, with all their lands, houses, mosques and even springs, wells, roads, mountains, and the lands and cities situated in the outskirts and surroundings of these two cities, all speak of the Islamic history, its emergence and the complete journey. Those Muslims who have the desire to protect their history and dignity, as well as their glorious past, and who wish to revive the traces of Islam, must all strive to protect these monuments and reconstruct all that has been destroyed, and rescue the two holy cities from the embezzlements of the colonists and their destructive occupation.

These remnants, signs and monuments, can give a better understanding of the life of holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny), than the biographical books.

The biographical books are accessed only by the ones who are capable of studying them, whereas these monuments can be witness by all the people who come to visit from near and faraway places, and they can learn great lessons from them.

In my opinion, even the original names of all the places and lands, which were mentioned at the time of Prophet and in the traditions, must be protected; and specially, the names which were specially allotted for the Prophet’s Mosque, Masjid-al-Haram, its gates, pillars, and all the other things associated with it, must not be changed, for all these are the memorials of Islamic history. Those who have done these destructions, have committed the greatest acts of treachery and hostility towards the history of Islam.

The protection of these sanctuaries, apart from the aspect of venerating the sacraments of Allah which is incumbent as per the Sharia, it is also obligatory because of the points mentioned above. The demolition of these landmarks, apart from degradation and humiliation, will shake and weaken the bases of Islamic history. The loss of demolishing these shrines and keeping them in such a form that they not even have tombstones, or any other sign of recognition, and leaving them on the verge of destruction and eradication, is nothing less than the loss of burning the books of history for a nation.   

 

Our collective duty on the International Day of Baqee’

 

The eighth day of Shawwal is the day when the destruction committed by a misguided group began from Baqee’, where they demolished the holy shrines of Ahl-al-Bait (peace be upon them), and attacked the identity of Islam. Therefore, it is obligatory on all the Muslims, irrespective of Shias, Sunni and other sects, to condemn their atrocities on this day, and collectively demand the reconstruction of these holy shrines for the revival of Islam’s lost glory. This sorrowful day must be commemorated by the Muslims every year and the oppressors must be condemned. These monuments must be renovated as soon as possible, especially the sanctuaries and shrines like the birthplace of Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him and his holy progeny) in Mecca, and the burial place of his grandfather, his dear uncle, and his self-sacrificing wife. The locality of Bani Hashim must also be reconstructed.

In the holy city of Medina, Uhad, the grave of Hazrat Hamza, all the other martyrs and the cemetery of Baqee’ must be rebuilt; specially the graves and shrines of the Infallible leaders (peace be upon them), the grave of Imam Hasan (peace be upon Him), Imam Zain al-Aabideen (peace be upon Him), Imam Mohammad al-Baqir (peace be upon Him) and Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (peace be upon Him), the graves of these honourable personalities who are the pride of Islam and humanity must be reconstructed. The house of Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (peace be upon Him), which is among those houses whose virtue is mentioned in the holy Quran, must be returned its old look.

Especially the Shias must commemorate this day in the memory of the historical incident and the disrespect shown towards the household of Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) in the two holy sanctuaries, which continues even today. They must conduct Majalis for mourning over this sorrowful tragedy and give their condolences to the leader of the time, Imam Mahdi (may Allah hasten his reappearance), and condemn the oppression committed against Islam, Quran, the holy Prophet and his household (peace be upon them). They must not forget this tragic incident because it is not forgettable.

“They desire to put out the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light though the faithless should be averse”.[1]

 

[1] Chapter As-Saff, verse 8. 

موضوع:

Eid – ul – Fitr

Eid – ul – Fitr

 

"اسئلك بحق ھذا الیوم الذی جعلته للمسلمین عیدا"

“I beseech you in the name of this day, which You have decided to be feast for the Muslims”.

          On the day of Eid – ul – Fitr, Muslims from all around the world experience a sense of pride, honour and dignity as they have successfully completed the month of Ramadan and benefitted from its spiritual and nurturing bounties.

          They thank Allah for having attended and passed one of the greatest educational classes of Islam within the span of one month, and utilized the lessons taught to them as per their potential and preparation, which they have dissolved in their souls and spirit, and registered on the tablets of their hearts and consciences.

          On this day, the Muslims return victoriously from a sensitive and dangerous Jihad – in which the champions, victors and world heavyweights have faced defeat.

          This Jihad is the Jihad against one’s own self; Jihad against the inclinations and animalistic desires and tastes.

          Keeping one’s self from the pleasures of lust, protecting it from eating delicious foods and sweet drinks, refraining from gloating and satanic lusts and lures, from lies, back-biting, anger and fury, bad habits and behaviour, arrogance, love of position; and distancing from all other sins and wrongdoings in this field of Jihad, is victory and success.

          All these deeds are Jihad and in fact the “greater Jihad” which was described by the holy Prophet (peace be upon Him and His Progeny) for the group of companions who had gone for Jihad and fought against the enemies with swords and weapons, and shown their power and strength, saying:

"مرحباً بقوم قضوا الجھاد الاصغر و بقی علیھم الجھاد الاکبر"[1]

“Welcoming the people returning from smaller Jihad while the greater Jihad remains for them”.

          “The Greater Jihad” which cannot be performed by anyone except the faithful people, the men and women nurtured in the arms of Islam; these are the ones who can gain pride in the battlefield.

          It is a battlefield in which the powerful warriors, lovers of worldly wealth and status, lust-worshipers, blood-shedding executioners, the ambitious conquerors of nations, the proud youths, the leopard-like furious men, merciless transgressors, the assassins and butchers of history, the lustful women, the impure virgins and the worshippers of the material things, will lay defeated on the surface of earth; and they are incapable of gaining pride and participate in these competitions.

          A battlefield in which the faithful men and women, the divine worshippers, the humble, pure-hearted, pious, forbearing and non-attending towards worldly riches wears the uniform of a warrior, with firm will and high determination, defeats the opponent; thus becoming victorious in these competitions with pride.

          Indeed, battle against the desires of one’s self is easy, while it is difficult. It is easy because the pure conscience and nature of human beings, their intellect and wisdom, understand the well-being and its obligation. And if a man steps in this field, as he moves forwards, he will become more and more successful; until he overcomes and humiliates his disobeying self and the satanic troops, and helps dominate the heavenly, intellectual and the faculties of conscience over his body.

          One the other hand, this act is difficult; because Jihad against self is the steadfastness in front of various desires and the endeavour for its control and management. The cognition of the satanic traps and the hidden lustful desires is not possible for everyone. Controlling the misleading self and ignoring the desires of sensual gratification, and the thousand extensive and unruly carnal demands, cannot be done in this haste. And this domestic enemy gains awareness and manages connection with the desires which assist human beings in repelling the external enemies, and seeks help and assistance from it.

          From these aspects, fighting against the self is an extremely difficult act and successful is someone who can moderate his self, and forcibly manage it in the proper way.

          The holy month of Ramadan, is the month of fighting against the self; and the school of moderation and reformation of desires, demands and exhibition of the willpower and the psychological capabilities; and now, it is the opportunity of conducting the ritual of a great and virtuous Eid, it is the Islamic Eid which is the Eid for everyone and all the common classes and individuals.

 

[1] Bihar ul Anwar, v. 19, Hadith 182

موضوع:

Monday / 1 March / 2021
The Night of Decree
The Era of Humanity’s Excellence

 

 

Laylatul Qadr

The Night of Decree

The Era of Humanity’s Excellence

 

The Night of Decree, the Night of Light and Mercy, the night of the revelation of Qur’an, the rising point of good deeds and prosperities, the revelation time for blessings, the beginning of a new human life, the era of change and the date of actual human excellence.

 

The Night of Decree, the Night of Human Liberty

 

If this night had not existed or arrived, the night of humanity’s misfortune would never have ended and the dawn of his good-fortune would not have appeared, and man would not have attained liberty from the chains of the tyrants and the colonists.

The Night of Decree, a blessed night, a night of humanity’s liberty and the announcement of human right, and the governance of justice and fairness. A night which is for the ignorant, unaware, corrupt, destructive and misguided nations, a dawn of guidance, awareness and salvation. It is this night in which the greatest and holiest heavenly book – which guarantees the guidance of mankind and his prosperity till eternity – was revealed and with a heavenly illumination, it guided the world from the darkness of polytheism, and the dualism of Zoroastrianism, and the trinity of Christianity, and the superstitions of Jews, and idol-worship etc. towards the brightness of Monotheism (Tawheed) and the worship of One God.

If it wasn’t for this night, the great Islamic civilization, with all its great values and teachings, ethics and mysticism, jurisprudence etc. and the eminent personalities which were nurtured by it would have all been a myth.

 

Impact of the Night of Decree on the Progress of Human Society

 

The levels reached by mankind after the revelation of Qur’an and the stages which it will attain in the future, are all due to the blessings of this night and the guidance of Qur’an.

In order to exhibit the impact of this holy night on the progress of human goals and the development of human society, we must analyze the great achievements, movements and actions that were influenced by the liberalizing teachings of Qur’an in the fields of knowledge, industry and civilization, which become the share of human beings throughout these fourteen centuries. Then we must compare it with the stagnant, silent and lightless life of the past to understand how the Islamic movements, Muslim risings and the prophethood of Mohammad (peace be upon him and his holy progeny) turned out to be the source of reforms, liberalizing movements and progressive revolutions, and to know how it took forward the caravan of mankind with ever-increasing speed and swiftness and where did this human race, which was stepping forward with dullness, weakness and helplessness, reach in the time period of fourteen centuries. It extended the horizon of his thought and perception way beyond earth, moon and other planets.

 

Qur’an – The Axis of the Night of Decree

 

Indeed, the holy Qur’an has revolutionized the thoughts and honored the human personality, and announced the human rights with subtlety, and denounced the worship of anyone but Allah, and broke the individual powers, and limited the governing body, and refrained from those luxuries, extravagances, discriminations, misuse of government’s treasury and plundering of people’s hard-earned income, and established equal civil rights for everyone.

 

Hidden Secret of the Night of Decree

 

Qur’an has introduced the Night of Decree as a blessed night and a complete chapter has been revealed in its regard, and the dignity of this night is more than one thousand months. However, there is a difference of opinion regarding the ascertainment of the Night of Decree, but as per the researched and reliable opinion – derived from authentic narrations – it is not outside the nineteenth, twenty first and twenty third night of the month of Ramadan. According to a strong probability – which is approved by some of the narrations like the “narration of Jahni” – the Night of Decree is the twenty third night, and some other narrations indicate that all the three nights are Nights of Decree.

Nevertheless, if the Night of Decree is not known for certain, its concealment holds a wisdom and good intention, and it is possible that the intention behind it is that the Muslims shall put extra effort to pray, worship Almighty Allah, recite the holy Qur’an, learn its teachings and realities throughout the month of Ramadan, or at least these three nights; and regard the entire month as the “Month of Qur’an” and make special arrangements on the eve of nineteenth, twenty first and twenty third for repentance, remorse, reformation of circumstances, recitation of Qur’an and supplication, and remain awake till the dawn.

Another point that can be understood as the reason for concealment of the Night of Decree is that if the Night of Decree, with all its significance and value, would be ascertained and known, majority of people would have considered it sufficient to worship in that night only, thus getting deprived of the benefit of worship and supplications in the rest of the nights, and it might become the cause of arrogance and pride for a few; whereas while it is hidden and unascertained, the believers engage themselves with the remembrance of Allah and repentance in all the probable nights, thus benefitting from extra reward and blessings; and with the help of excessive practice, these habits will be firmly inculcated in them.

 

Necessity of benefitting spiritually from the Night of Decree

 

Hence, the Night of Decree is amongst the most valuable and fortunate opportunities, and we must consider this night important for contemplating the Islamic conditions and paying further attention towards the teaching of holy Qur’an; and assess the extent of our connection with Qur’an and its rulings.                  

We must benefit from these blessed nights of revival (Ihya) – regarding whose importance, and the virtues of remaining awake throughout the night and praying in it, several reports have arrived in the books of supplications and narrations. The Nights of Decree are those nights in which whoever arrives at the door of Allah’s house, he attains the success of spiritual presence and receives the taste of nearness.

 

The Night of Supplication for haste in the Faraj (Relief) of Imam Mahdi (may Allah hasten His reappearance)

 

Among the important duties of these nights is the renewal of allegiance with Imam Mahdi (may Allah hasten His reappearance) and the recitation of the supplication: “Allahumma kun liwaliyikal…” because the Night of Decree has a special association with his holiness (peace be upon Him) and in that night, the angels descend upon him. Affinity with Qur’an, the holy progeny (peace be upon them), the clear book and the clear leader, demands that the believers must hold fast both the holy Qur’an, and the last Imam of Justice, the Remainder of the guiding Progeny, the true meaning of this verse “then We made those whom We chose from Our servants heirs to the Book”[1], i.e. Imam Mahdi (may Allah hasten His reappearance), the son of Imam Hasan al-Askari (peace be upon Him). The believers must know that as per the Mutawatir narration of Thaqlayn, peace and deliverance from misguidance can be achieved only under the shadow of bonding with the Qur’an and the holy progeny; and in order to be rescued from all these deviations and distress, there is no other way but seeking them means of and bonding with Qur’an and the Progeny (peace be upon them).

We must all consider this night a great opportunity for attaining religious knowledge, repentance, renewal of covenant, return of value, supplication, ethical self – development, and renewal of faith in Almighty Allah, certainty in the day of Reckoning and Resurrection, purification of intentions from impurities and hatred of our Muslim brethren, and request of good, happiness, guidance and peace for all the human beings, and special supplication for the hastening of Imam Mahdi’s relief.

We hope that the glory of Islam, in all the centers and programs, increases twice its previous value, by the grace of the pure – intentioned supplications of these nights; and all our economic and social weaknesses, and the prohibited acts, sins and wrongdoings which threaten the condition of the society, are totally eradicated in this night.

I humbly request all the worshippers of these blessed nights to pay their wholehearted attentions towards that kind and merciful Imam, who is the love of all the sages and the greatest treasure of all the prophets; and to end the Night of Decree with the memory of his holiness and by reciting the supplication for his hastened relief, and the enforcement of true justice throughout the Earth. Pray for the Relief of his holiness (may Allah hasten His reappearance) for it may result in the relief and ease of everyone. The duty of all the Muslims in these sacred nights is to pray collectively for his Relief.

Come, let’s make a pledge a strong and firm oath with his holiness that we will spend all our life seeking his satisfaction and happiness, and end all the sorrows and pains he holds due to the problems of Muslims.   

            

 

 

 

[1] Chapter Fatir, verse 32

موضوع:

Monday / 1 March / 2021
Fourteen Hundred Years of facing oppression - An article by Grand Ayatollah Saafi Golpaygani

For one thousand and four hundred years, on the comprehensive personality of His Holiness, Commander of the faithful, Master of the monotheists, Ali Ibn Abi Talib (peace be upon him), the genius clerics, elites and unparalleled experts from the Muslim and non-Muslim community have spoken extensively and written thousands of books and thesis regarding the dimensions of his life, his virtues, his qualities, his ethics and divine attributes, but even today, the knowers do not consider themselves anywhere close to the shore of this boundless ocean and like the travelers who travel in the space, how much ever they fly, they do not find an end to their journey.    

 

Although the sections of the life of His Holiness in this world totally comprised of 63 years from the aspect of time duration, but from the aspect of broadness and quality, it is broader and more extensive than sixty three millions years and more.

That which gives value and importance to the life of a human being, is not the length of his life, but the depiction of sublime human qualities and the beauty of human values and meanings.

It is appropriate for our dear youngsters to regard the youth of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) as their role-model; the youth and adolescence of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) contains several sections and incidents that will encourage all the youth for setting on the journey and travel towards the lofty positions of humanity, faith, resistance and steadfastness.

Ali was a youth who used to fight against the strongest warriors of his time in the battlefield of Jihad and defended Islam with utmost bravery by defeated them in spite of all their might and power.

In the battles of Badr, Uhad, Ahzab, Khaibar and other battles in which he participated, he was a young man. In his youth, on the night of Mabeet, the night when all the infidels decided to assassinate Allah’s messenger (peace be upon him and his holy progeny), his holiness slept in the Prophet’s place. In the incident of Mubahila, when he participated along with Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him and his progeny) by the command of Allah (s.w.t.), even then he was young. When he gave his ring as alms during the prayer to the poor, and the verse إنَّمَا وَليُّكُمُ الله was revealed, he was young at that time also. When he gave his food to the needy, the orphan and the prisoner, and preferred them over himself, he was young. In his youth, his days were spent in fasting and his nights were spent offering prayers and staying awake for worshipping Allah (s.w.t.).

Not a single day was spent in his youth and adolescence that lacked the virtues, the positions and statuses that were loved by Allah (s.w.t.). Ali’s youth and adolescence should be regarded as an ideal and role-model for all the youth. Most of the virtues and attributes that are reported regarding Ali (peace be upon him) are of his youth.

He was young but if his faith had to be compared with the faith of all the old companions, it would be greater than them all; rather it was much heavier than being compared with their faith. Indeed! The virtues of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) are much more than one can imagine.

 

Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him and his progeny) is reported to have said:

“Indeed Allah (s.w.t.) has given my brother uncountable virtues”.

 

At another instance, the holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) addressed Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and said:

If it wasn’t such that a group of people from my nation would attribute towards you what the Nasara attributed towards Jesus (p.b.u.h.), I would have said such things about you that the entire nation would have followed the imprints of your footsteps and kissed it.

 

When Khalil bin Ahmad was asked, ‘What do you say regarding Imam Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him)?’

He described the historic positions and the battle between truth and evil, and the victory of truth over evil, in this way:

He said, ‘What can I say about the man whose virtues were concealed by his friends out of fear and his excellences were covered by his enemies out of jealousy and in spite of these two concealments, his virtues appeared in such a way that it filled the East and West of the world.’

 

And Shafei said regarding him:

I am a slave of the man, for whom the chapter “Hal Ataa” was revealed.

 

References:

  1. Chapter Maida, verse 55.
  2. Mi’ah Manqabat min Manaqib Amir Al-Momineen, Ibn Shazan, p. 177.
  3. Book Sulaym bin Qays Hilali, v. 2, Hadith 58.
  4. Tanqih Al-Maqaal, Mamqani, v. 1, the description by Khalil Ibn Ahmad Al-Farahidi, the famous Arabic syntax expert.

 

موضوع:

The Importance of Quran
The Importance of Quran
A series of Articles by Grand Ayatollah Saafi Golpaygani for the Holy Month of Ramadan

 

It is reported from Imam Ali (a.s.) that he said: “I heard the holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) say, ‘seditions will occur soon’! ‘I asked: O Allah’s Messenger! How can a person save himself from these seditions?’

          He said: ‘One can save himself from these seditions by means of Allah’s Book, which contains the report of that which existed before you, that which shall come after you and that which lies among you. It is the separator of truth and evil and it is not humorous, playful and wicked. One’s lustful desires will not deviate it and the knowers will not feel content with it; it will not become old by repetitive and excessive recitation; its wonders will not end; whoever avoids it out of arrogance and pride, Allah will shatter him; whoever seeks guidance from anything other than Quran, Allah (s.w.t.) will leave him misguided. It is the firm rope of Allah and the straight path. He who acts upon it will be rewarded, he who commands according to it will command justly and he who invites towards it has invited towards the straight path.”[1]

In the book “Nahj-al-balagha”, it is reported from Imam Ali (a.s.) that he said:

“And know that this Qur’an is an adviser who never deceives, a leader who never misleads and a narrator who never speaks a lie. No one will sit beside this Qur’an but that when he rises he will achieve one addition or one diminution – addition in his guidance or elimination in his (spiritual) blindness. You should also know that no one will need anything after the Qur’an (after the revelation of Quran, one does not need any constitution and program for the reformation of his affairs of sustenance, this world and the hereafter) and no one will be free from want before (guidance from) the Qur’an. Therefore, seek cure from it for your ailments and seek its assistance in your distresses. It contains a cure for the biggest diseases, namely unbelief, hypocrisy, revolt and misguidance”.[2]

We Muslims are of the belief that the Holy Quran is light, mercy and guidance towards salvation and prosperity. It is the most comprehensive book of life that has ever been revealed and a book parallel to it has not arrived and shall not arrive for humanity. The human society does not need any other system or constitution after having the rulings of Quran and the religion of Islam.

          Undoubtedly, if the teachings of Quran are applied completely, the flaws and distortions that have occupied the life of human beings will be rectified, thus helping brotherhood and justice prevail in the entire world.

          Therefore, our duty is to hold fast the holy Quran and the Prophet’s household (pb.u.h.), in obedience with the following Mutawatir (successive)Hadith:

          “Indeed I am leaving among you two precious (weighty) things, the Book of Allah and my family, my household; as long as you hold fast the two, you will not go astray ever”.[3]

          It is also our duty to deliver the message of Quran to the entire humanity. The teachings of Quran should be regarded as the cause and motive of all the movements and uprisings, initiatives and reformatory revolutions and we should continuously regard it as the beginning and ending point of our lives, as the spring of guidance and the cause of progress. We must only refer to the holy Quran and the holy Progeny (p.b.u.t.) in all the aspects and dimensions of our life. We must regard it as the only barometer, the unique constitution and law that should compulsorily be followed throughout the world and under no case or circumstance, should we become ignorant towards it.

          It is obvious that Muslims cannot distance themselves from Quran in their life, society, religion and world, then claim that religion is separate from world and spirituality is aloof of politics.

          The responsibility which we Muslims have to take is that we shouldn’t surrender before the lifestyle of dissociating ourselves from the world. However, many of us have accepted this separation unknowingly and ignorantly.Every Muslim must have an answer to the following questions:

  1. Do we regard Quran as the actual source of our movements and the origin of all the inspirations?
  2.  Do we believe in the warnings and divine communications of Quran?
  3.  Are we steadfast firm regarding our faith in Quran and its directions?
  4. Have we derived our lifestyle from Quran?
  5.  Do we follow the Book of Allah like a prescription for health, medicine and cure?

          Can we respond to these questions affirmatively?   Unless and until our lives, society, actions and behavior, lifestyle and mannerisms are such that we cannot give an affirmative reply to these questions, we will remain away from the holy realm of Quran.

 

 

[1]Majma’ulBayaan, v. 1, p. 16.

[2]NahjulBalagha, sermon 174.

[3]Bihar ul Anwar, v. 35, p. 184, Hadith 2.

موضوع:

Monday / 1 March / 2021
A Reformist Reviver

 

 

In the name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful

A Reformist Reviver

The eminent personality of his holiness, Imam Hasan (a.s.), the glorified leader, is much greater for the likes of me to be able to write down an article for its elucidation or a book for that matter.

 

From the viewpoint of Sunni scholars

 

In addition to the great Shia scholars and writers, the senior Sunni clerics, scholars and clergymen have penned numerous books on the biography and life sketch of his holiness (a.s.). They have mentioned the virtues and distinguishing qualities of this great personality in several books based on history, narrations, commentaries, moral values, biographies etc.; such as “Sahih Bukhari”, “Sahih Muslim”, “Sunan e Tirmizi”, “Sunan-e-Ibn Maja”, “Tabaqat-e-Ibn Sa’d”, “Sunan e Abi Daood”, “Khasais e Nisayi”, “Jamius Sagheer”, “Masabeeh-us-Sunnah”, “As’aaf ur Raghibeen”, “Noor-ul-Absaar”, “Tazkirat-al-Khawaas”, “Al-Ithaaf”, “Kifayat-al-Talib”, “Sharh-e-Nehj-ul-Balagha Ibn-e-Abil Hadeed”, “Mir’aat-al-Jinaan”, “Multaqi-al-Asfiya”, “Nazm Durr-as-Samtain”, “Faraid-as-Samtain”, “Seerat-al-Halabiya”, “Usd-al-Ghabah”, “Al-Isteeab”, “Al-Isaabah”, “Tareekh-al-Khulafa”, “Al Fusool Al-Mohimma” etc.

In order to observe brevity, we will now present the translation of a few sections of the book “Ahl-al-Bait”, penned by “Taufeeq Abu Ilm”, with a few additions. It is one of the most recent books compiled by the Sunnis in the year 1390 Hijri. It has been written in Egypt.

 

Innumerable Virtues

 

Both Shias and Sunnis share this belief that his holiness (a.s.) is one of the companions of “Kisa” regarding whom the verse of Tat’heer (purification) has been revealed; and according to the Mutawatir narration of “Thaqlain”, he is equivalent to the Holy Quran. Moreover, he is one of those four people who accompanied the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) against the Nasara (Christians) of Najran for the purpose of “Mubahila”.

It is narrated from Osama bin Zayd that the holy Prophet (peace be upon him) is reported to have said: These two (Hasan and Husain) are my sons, and the sons of my daughter. O Allah! I love them, so You love them as well; and love all those who love them.

Aisha is reported to have said that Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) used to take Hasan (a.s.) in his arms and say: “My Lord! This is my son and I love him, so love him and love all those who love him”.

Anas bin Malik says: “Hasan (a.s.) came near the holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny). I wanted to take him away from the holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) when the holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said: Woe unto you O Anas! Leave my son and the fruit of my life alone. Whoever harms him, has harmed me, and whoever harms me, has harmed Allah (s.w.t.)”.

            

Moral Generosities

 

Imam Hasan (a.s.) was brought up in the House of revelation and nurtured in the School of Monotheism, the benevolent and merciful hands of his grandfather, Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him and his progeny). He was an example of moral generosities, desirable traits and good behaviour. One of the reasons that his personality was so widely loved was his kind moral behaviour towards people. He was praised and alluded by everyone because of his praiseworthy qualities.

Politeness, forbearance, eloquence, truthfulness, generosity, bravery, piety, God-wariness, humbleness and all the other commendable qualities existed in him; the Mohammedan character was prominent and apparent in him.

 

Fear of the Divine Punishment

 

Imam Hasan (a.s.) was the greatest worshipper, the greatest ascetic and the most learned man of his time. Whenever he intended to perform the Hajj pilgrimage, he used to travel on foot and even barefooted on several journeys. When he used to perform ablution, his body would begin to shiver, his colour would turn pale, and he would never abandon the remembrance of Allah (s.w.t.) in any condition. He was pious, forbearing, learned, and he was God-wary.

 

Unparalleled Asceticism.

 

His asceticism was on such a level that he had forsaken all the means of love and association with the worldly affairs and its bounties. He was focused towards the final abode and the ultimate residence of the pious men. He was such that he said for himself: “Whoever knows Allah, loves Him, whoever knows the world becomes ascetic in it, a believer does not diverse unto negligence, when he contemplates, he becomes sorrowful”.

Imam (a.s.) overlooked statesmanship and governance for the sake of securing the welfare of Islam and Muslims. Whenever Imam (a.s.) brought the thought of death and human position in his mind, he used to begin weeping unintentionally; and when he used to weep while thinking about resurrection and walking through the Siraat; and upon thinking about standing before Allah at the time of reckoning, he used to become unconscious amidst wailing and crying.

 

Exhibition of the Divine Mercy

 

Like his grandfather, Prophet Mohammad (p.b.u.h.), Imam Hasan (a.s.) was also an eminent example of the divine mercy, which filled the hopeless and aggrieved hearts with hope and mercy. He used to visit the weak and the sick; participated in the funeral rituals of the dead; accept the invitation of the Muslims and made sure that no one feels hurt by him; he never harmed anyone or committed an evil act against any person. He used to sit in the company of the poor and repel evil conduct with good behaviour.

 

Imam’s Forbearance

 

Imam Hasan (a.s.) was by all its meaning a true human being and a complete example of great character of Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him and his progeny). He was not incited by his anger and wasn’t moved by undesired personal affairs. He didn’t act upon anything under the influence of his anger and his actions always called others towards these verses:

“…and suppress their anger, and excuse (the faults of) the people, and Allah loves the virtuous”.[1]

“Good and evil (conduct) are not equal. Repel (evil) with what is best.”[2]

His holiness (a.s.) responded to whatever he witnessed from his enemies with patience, forgiveness and pardon. Marwan bin Hakam, one of the wickedest enemies of the Prophet’s household (peace be upon them), compared the forbearance and endurance of his holiness (a.s.) with a mountain.

His holiness (a.s.), just like his grandfather, was a universal example of forbearance, pardon and forgiveness. History has preserved precious incidents regarding his moral values and it implies on the fact that he was among the foremost ones and the founders of etiquettes and moral values in the Islamic world.

 

Love for the People

 

His Holiness (a.s.) was soft spoken, sociable, affectionate and beloved. Old and young, all the people loved him for his praiseworthy qualities. He was always generous and munificent towards the people; both towards those who requested him and those who didn’t.

From the Morning Prayer until sunrise, he used to sit for post-prayer supplications. Then he used to pay visit to the ones he must and treated them with love and affection. After offering the Dhuhr prayer, he used to sit inside the mosque and give people knowledge and teach them manners.

This was a drop from the ocean of virtues and qualities of Imam Hasan al-Mujtaba (peace be upon him) which are much more than anything reckonable. In the end, I would like to present a few couplets in the holy threshold of Imam Hasan (a.s.):

 

His shrine is the shrine of God

His door’s dust is Kabah for the loyal devotees   

 

His existence is grace and love personified

His heart is the spring of Divine blessing

 

His dignity itself and the pearl of the ocean of kindness

His face is the mirror which exhibits truth

 

He is the model of forbearance, leniency and endurance

He is the depicter of mercy, peace and purity

 

He is the origin of excellences and good traits

He is the treasure of sacrifice, pardon and modesty

 

After Ali (a.s.), the king of Wilayah,

He is the motive and intention of two “Innama”[3]

 

For him are the verses of Tat’heer[4] and “fa man Haaj’jaka”[5]

A chapter of his virtues is “Hal Ataa”[6]

 

He is the knower of the Tafsir (commentary) and inner-knowledge of the Book

A witness to this claim is the verse “Qul Kafaa”[7]

 

In his hands lies the affairs of the universe

Even death is obedient to his command

 

Everyone benefits from the cloud of his bestowment

His kindness ends the sorrows of the sorrowful

 

He is forgiving like the Messenger (p.b.u.h.)

Bound by the covenant of “Alast” and “Bala”[8]

 

Who is the possessor of these qualities and virtues?

For whom is all this value, nobility and position?

 

He is the greatest son, protector of the clear Law

He is the Master of the noblemen, Hasan al-Mujtaba (a.s.)

 

[1] Chapter Al-i-Imran, verse 134

[2] Chapter Fussilat, verse 34

[3] Chapter Al-Ahzab, verse 33; Chapter Al-Ma’ida, verse 55

[4] Chapter Al-Ahzab, verse 33

[5] Chapter Al-i-Imran, verse 61

[6] Chapter Al-Insan, verse 1

[7] Chapter Ar-Ra’d, verse 43

[8] Chapter Al-A’raf, verse 172

موضوع:

Monday / 1 March / 2021
Ramadan - The Month of Brotherhood
The Tradition of Brotherhood in Ramadan
A series of Articles by Grand Ayatollah Saafi Golpaygani for the Holy Month of Ramadan

 

The Tradition of Brotherhood

 

Among the events and historic incidents that took place in the holy month of Ramadan, is the bonding and covenant of brotherhood. As per the report of Sheikh Mufeed, on the twelfth day of Ramadan, the holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) established a contract of brotherhood among his companions, and between himself and Ali (a.s.).[1]

          As we all know, Islam is a religion of brotherhood and fraternity, impartiality and unanimity, cooperation and equality. It considers the citizens of this world as members of one family. It does not recognize colour and creed, richness and poverty, governance and other worldly topics as the cause of superiority over others. It has reduced all distances and knows piety as the only barometer of excellence; a privilege which can never cause pride, arrogance, misuse and distance from others.

          The faith of Oneness and monotheism is the nucleus of this religion and the source of the feeling of brotherhood with God’s creation. There is no substance or food, no belief, habit or trait, like the faith of monotheism for good-fortune and success of human beings.

          The Holy Quran says:

إِنَّ هَذِهِ أُمَّتُكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَ أَنَا رَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُونِ

“Indeed this community of yours is one community, and I am your Lord. So worship Me”.[2]

          Quran has not held comparisons and competitions between individuals on the basis of wealth and riches, positions and rule, population and numbers, colour and gender. Arab and non-Arab, white and black, are all equal because these individuals are equal in the eyes of Quran, human rights and Islamic rights. The humanity of human being and perfectness of mankind is not related to these aspects.

          While comparing human beings with each other, Quran has chosen the criteria of knowledge, piety, worship and faith.

          Study the following verses and understand how Quran has encouraged and attracted human beings towards virtues of knowledge, piety and faith:

 

  1. أَمَّنْ هُوَ قَانِتٌ آنَاءَ اللَّيلِ سَاجِدًا وَ قَائِمًا يحْذَرُ الْآخِرَةَ وَ يرْجُو رَحْمَةَ رَبِّهِ قُلْ هَلْ يسْتَوِي الَّذِينَ يعْلَمُونَ وَالَّذِينَ لَا يعْلَمُونَ إِنَّمَا يتَذَكَّرُ أُولُوا لْأَلْبَابِ[3]

Is he who supplicates in the watches of the night, prostrating and standing, apprehensive of the Hereafter and expecting the mercy of his Lord…? Say, ‘Are those who know equal to those who do not know?

  1. أَفَمَنْ حَقَّ عَلَيهِ كَلِمَةُ الْعَذَابِ أَفَأَنْتَ تُنْقِذُ مَنْ فِي النَّارِ [4]              

Can he against whom the word of punishment has become due…? Can you rescue someone who is in the Fire?

  1. أَفَمَنْ يتَّقِي بِوَجْهِهِ سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ يوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ [5]                         

What! Is someone who fends off with his face the terrible punishment [meted out to him] on the Day of Resurrection…?

  1. أَفَمَنْ كَانَ مُؤْمِنًا كَمَنْ كَانَ فَاسِقًا لَا يسْتَوُونَ[6]

Is someone who is faithful like someone who is a transgressor? They are not equal.

  1. أَفَمَنْ كَانَ عَلَى بَينَةٍ مِنْ رَبِّهِ كَمَنْ زُينَ لَهُ سُوءُ عَمَلِهِ[7]

Is he who stands on a manifest proof from his Lord like those to whom the evil of their conduct is made to seem decorous and who follow their desires?

  1. أَفَمَنْ أَسَّسَ بُنْيانَهُ عَلَى تَقْوَى مِنَ اللَّهِ وَ رِضْوَانٍ خَيرٌ أَمْ مَنْ أَسَّسَ بُنْيانَهُ عَلَى شَفَا جُرُفٍ هَارٍ فَانْهَارَ بِهِ فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ[8]

Is he who founds his building on Godwariness and [the pursuit of Allah’s] pleasure better-off or he who founds his building on the brink of a collapsing bank which collapses with him into the fire of hell?

  1. أَفَمَنِ اتَّبَعَ رِضْوَانَ اللَّهِ كَمَنْ بَاءَ بِسَخَطٍ مِنَ اللَّه[9]ِ

Is he who follows [the course of] Allah’s pleasure like him who earns Allah’s displeasure and whose refuge is hell, an evil destination?

  1. أَفَمَنْ يمْشِي مُكِبًّا عَلَى وَجْهِهِ أَهْدَى أَمَّنْ يمْشِي سَوِيا عَلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ[10]

Is he who walks prone on his face better guided, or he who walks upright on a straight path?

  1. أَفَمَنْ يهْدِي إِلَى الْحَقِّ أَحَقُّ أَنْ يتَّبَعَ أَمَّنْ لَا يهِدِّي إِلَّا أَنْ يهْدَى[11]

Is He who guides to the truth worthier to be followed, or he who is not guided unless shown the way?

  1. أَفَمَنْ يعْلَمُ أَنَّمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ الْحَقُّ كَمَنْ هُوَ أَعْمَى[12]

Is someone who knows that what has been sent down to you from your Lord is the truth, like someone who is blind?

  1. أَلَا إِنَّ أَوْلِياءَ اللَّهِ لَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيهِمْ وَ لَا هُمْ يحْزَنُونَ[13]

Look! The friends of Allah will indeed have no fear nor will they grieve.

  1. إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ[14]

Indeed the nobles of you in the sight of Allah is the most Godwary among you.

  1. الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَ عَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ طُوبَى لَهُمْ وَ حُسْنُ مَآبٍ[15]

Those who have faith and do righteous deeds – happy are they and good is their [ultimate] destination.

  1. الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَ كَانُوا يتَّقُونَ ۔لَهُمُ الْبُشْرَى[16]

Those who have faith and are Godwary. For them is good news.

  1. أَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَ عَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ فَلَهُمْ جَنَّاتُ الْمَأْوَى[17]

As for those who have faith and do righteous deeds, for them will be the gardens of the Abode.

  1. أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَ عَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ كَالْمُفْسِدِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ[18]

Shall We treat those who have faith and do righteous deeds like those who cause corruption on the earth?

 

And other verses which clearly imply on this point that the only factor which becomes the basis of excellence and the cause of success and deliverance for mankind is knowledge, faith, good deed, God-wariness and steadfastness.

In its group addresses, where Quran has not addressed a specific class of individuals, it has not regarded a country, a realm, a region, a language or a race as its addressee, so that one may assume that such descriptions are the reason of privilege in the sight of Islam; and lest the ones who have been addressed may consider it an evidence of their superiority over all the other nations. Instead, the entire humanity is addressed in such addresses.

Such as the following verses:

  1. قُلْ يا أَيهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيكُمْ جَمِيعًا[19]

Say, ‘O mankind! I am the Apostle of Allah to you all.

  1. اأَيهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمْ إِنَّ زَلْزَلَةَ السَّاعَةِ شَيءٌ عَظِيمٌ[20]         

O mankind! Be wary of your Lord! Indeed the quake of the Hour is a terrible thing.

  1. يا أَيهَا النَّاسُ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَيكُمْ[21]                

O mankind! Remember Allah’s blessing upon you!

  1. يا أَيهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَتْكُمْ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ[22]

O mankind! There has certainly come to you an advice from your Lord.

  1. أَيهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَ خَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَ بَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً[23]

O mankind! Be wary of your Lord who created you from a single soul, and created its mate from it, and from the two of them scattered numerous men and women.

In this verse, apart from addressing the humanity in general, it has declared the root and lineage of men and women as one; and in the era when a section of the nations was debating the humanity of women.[24] The holy Quran has introduced it as similar to men and announced its humanity in a certain and inarguable manner. In other verse, it says:

يا أَيهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ مِنْ ذَكَرٍ وَ أُنْثَى[25]

          “O mankind! Indeed, We created you from a male and a female”.

It can be understood from here that Islam is a universal religion and program, and a system of brotherhood and unity.

However, in some instances, its addresses are for a specific group of people. Such as:

ياأَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَى كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ[26]

“Say, ‘O People of the Book! Come to a common word between us and you’.”

          These addresses also approve those general addresses and invitation towards monotheism, sincerity and acceptance of Islam.

          The instances in which the believers are addressed by یا ایھا الذین آمنوا are because on such places, the topic which was intended in the address constituted of rulings and such aspects regarding which naturally the believers had to be addressed.

          Moreover, the specificity of faith and Islam which has been regarded in the addresses of یا ایھا الذین آمنواis something that can be possible achieved by anyone. The colour of Islam and the colour of faith in Allah is a colour appropriate for everyone; irrespective of men and women, rich and poor, Asian and European, Arab and non-Arab. It is the colour of Human nature and every human being possesses it inside himself; one must not conceal it or obstruct it with other colours. This colour, unlike the colour of nation, creed, tribe and language, is not the cause of separation and conflict; because it is not specifically for a particular tribe or people of a particular nation.

          It has arrived in a Hadith that one day, Abu Zar Al-Ghifari was witnessed with a black slave in the presence of holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.), while he was probably having a conversation with the slave and questioning him; amidst the conversation, Abu Zar said to him:

          “O son of black!"

Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) became upset and said in anger:

          “The son of a white has not superiority over the son of black but due to piety and Godwariness, or by means of good deed.”

          We all are alike and have no superiority over each other but by means of piety and good deed.

In compensation of what he had said, Abu Zar placed his face on the ground and said to the black slave: ‘Stand and rub my face on the ground with your foot.’[27]

          Islam announced that Allah has not chosen any race, tribe or nation, with regards to rights, over others; it has not regarded salvation exclusively for the people of a country or a creed. It has rejected the words of the Jews and Christians who said: “We are Allah’s children and His beloved ones”[28], and also said: ‘No one will enter paradise except one who is a Jew or Christian’, by saying:

وَقَالُوا لَنْ يدْخُلَ الْجَنَّةَ إِلَّا مَنْ كَانَ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَى تِلْكَ أَمَانِيهُمْ قُلْ هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ۔ بَلَى مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ فَلَهُ أَجْرُهُ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِ[29]

          “Those are their [false] hopes! Say, ‘Produce your evidence, should you be truthful’. Certainly, whoever submits his will to Allah and is virtuous, he shall have his reward from his Lord, and they will have no fear, nor shall they grieve”.

          Islam also declared that all humans hold the human dignity equally and they are each other’s partners. This dignity is not specific to any creed, race or nation. Allah’s has honoured all the children of Adam and said regarding them:

وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِي آدَمَ وَحَمَلْنَاهُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَ رَزَقْنَاهُمْ مِنَ الطَّيبَاتِ وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَى كَثِيرٍ مِمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا تَفْضِيلًا[30]

“Certainly We have honoured the Children of Adam, and carried them over land and sea, and provided them with all the good things, and preferred them with a complete preference over many of those We have created”.

          These voices of nationalism and tribalism are against the actual honour and dignity of human beings irrespective of the throats from which it comes out. It is against the correct logic and the perspective of the holy and noble religion, Islam.

          These cries sow the seeds of hypocrisy and two-facedness, hatred and separation, between the human beings. Those who raise these voices must know that they are the voice of hypocrisy and conflict.

          The teachings of Islam help grow the seed of love and affection in the hearts and guide human beings towards mutual cooperation and sympathy.

          The holy Quran has reminded us of the brotherhood which became the share of Muslims under the shadow of Islam, which eradicated the differences and hostilities, and attached the hearts with each other. It commanded the Muslims to hold fast to Allah’s cord. By using a small and meaningful phrase: ‘The faithful are indeed brothers’[31], it instigated their brotherhood or reported about their brotherhood and fraternity. Thus, those people who do not have brotherhood with each other are not faithful.

It has arrived in a tradition that:

“A Muslim is the brother of another Muslim; neither does he oppress him, nor does he leave him alone. Whoever fulfills the need of his Muslim brother, Allah will fulfill his need”.[32]

Imam Sadiq (a.s.) said:

“A Muslim is the brother of other Muslim. It is the right of a Muslim over his Muslim brother that he should not fill himself while his brother is hungry; he should not quench his thirst while his brother is thirsty; he should not be covered while his brother is naked. So, how great is the right of a Muslim over his brother”.[33]

It is reported from Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) that he said:

“Certainly the faithful men, in being kind and sympathetic towards the condition of each other, are like a single body. Whenever an organ from it suffers ailment, all the other organs of that body accompany it by remaining feverish and sleepless”.[34]

          Numerous traditions exist regarding the right of a Muslims over another Muslim and the reward he obtains in return.[35]

 

 

 

The Covenant of Brotherhood among the Companions of Prophet (p.b.u.h.).

From the beginning of his invitation, the holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) paid complete attention towards the issue of religious brotherhood, and regarded it among the significant pillars and firm foundations of the living Muslim society. With its help, he eradicated the grudges and age old hostilities that existed among the different nations and tribes.

          Among the deeds that were performed with the intention of having a more complete level of determination and cooperation, and for the awakening of the Islamic understanding and other wisdoms, was the brotherhood was established between every two migrants; similarly, a covenant of brotherhood was instituted between every two individuals from the migrants (Muhajir) and the Ansar (the people of Medina – the supporters).

          A covenant of brotherhood was established between every two individual who had homogeneity between themselves and were similar to each other from the aspects of thoughts and viewpoints. With this act, a connection and bonding was created between different families and tribes.

          This step taken by the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) was beneficial and significant both from the socio-political aspects as well as the aspect of connecting the new-born Islamic society. It served as a ground for the general Muslim brotherhood and a comprehensive fraternity, as well as a universal human society. Initially, brothers used to inherit each other until the following verse regarding the ruling of Inheritance revealed:

          “The blood relatives are more entitled to inherit from one another in the Book of Allah”. [36]

Hence, inheritances became established on the basis of blood relations.

 

 

Repetition of the Covenant of Brotherhood

          As we have comprehended from the books of Hadith and History, the covenant of brotherhood has been established several times:

  1. One time among the migrants, as per the narration of Abdullah bin Umar in the book Bihar ul Anwar.[37]
  2. In the holy city of Medina between the migrants and Ansar, when they entered Medina initially; as per the narrations of Bihar ul Anwar, Sira e Ibn e Hisham and other books.[38]
  3. At the time of revelation of the verse: The faithful are indeed brothers; as mentioned in the traditions of Bihar ul Anwar and Amaali of Sheikh Tusi.[39]
  4. On the day of Mubahila. As per the tradition mentioned in Safinatul Bihar. [40]

 

A Significant and Interesting Topic

          The issue that was most affectionate and lovable, interesting and significant, in these incidences, was the selection of Imam Ali (a.s.) by Prophet (p.b.u.h.) as his brother.

          Prophet (p.b.u.h.) made everyone the brother of one another and as per the view of the majority of historians and narrators, he established brotherhood between those men who were of a similar position and grade.

          On this basis, he had to select a brother for himself also. Rightfully, who was suitable and appropriate for this honour? Who has the personality which can possibly be near or equal to the status of Allah’s Messenger (except for apostleship)?

          This selection was not a simple one! Certainly, Prophet (p.b.u.h.) had to choose someone as his brother who was appropriate from all aspects. A brother who shared his thought, language and perspective. One who can sacrifice his wealth and life and fulfill the right of Prophet’s brotherhood.

          Indeed, none but Ali was suitable for this position that Allah’s Messenger (p.b.u.h.) said about him:

          “You are to me like Aaron was to Moses, but there will be no prophet after me”. (The only difference between you and Aaron is that you will not be given Prophet-hood after me). [41]

Therefore, Prophet (p.b.u.h.) did not select anyone except Ali (a.s.) for this position (brotherhood).

 

Covenant of Brotherhood between Prophet (p.b.u.h.) and Ali (a.s.).

          Apart from the Shia clerics, renowned Sunni narrators, famous historians and authors of biographical books, such as Halabi, ZainiDahlan and Ibn e Hisham, have also narrated the tradition of Brotherhood.

          With regard to this topic, whoever refers to the Shia and Sunni books, will obtain certainty that among all the companions and relatives, the only person whom the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) chose for his brotherhood was Imam Ali (a.s.). Whoever claims this status other than Imam Ali (a.s.), is a liar and untruthful person. As none but Ali (a.s.) claimed for this virtue, then like all the other virtues, this privilege is also exclusively for his holiness (a.s.). Prophet (p.b.u.h.) announced his selection on several instances which are as follows:

  1. At the time of the covenant among the migrants.
  2. At the time of the covenant between migrants and Ansaar.
  3. At the time of revelation of the verse ‘All faithful are indeed brothers’.[42]
  4. On the day of Mubahila.

This selection was done on the basis of revelation and was a divine selection. Allah (s.w.t.) established brotherhood between the holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) and Ali (a.s.). One LaylatulMabeet (the night of sleeping), the night in which the infidels conspired to assassinate Allah’s Messenger (p.b.u.h.), and Ali (a.s.) sacrificed his life for the life of the Apostle (p.b.u.h.) by sleeping on his bed – as per the description mentioned in the authentic Sunni books – Allah (s.w.t.) revealed upon his Archangels Gabriel and Michael that:

     “Are you not like Ali bin AbiTalib (i.e. do you not learn from his sacrifice, therefore) I have established brotherhood between him and Mohammad (peace be upon them)”.[43]

     Moreover, on several instances and places, Prophet (p.b.u.h.) called Ali (a.s.) his brother. From the time of invitation, when the verse “Warn the nearest of your kinsfolk”[44] revealed and Ali (a.s.) pledged allegiance with the Apostle (p.b.u.h.), his holiness said regarding Ali (a.s.):

     “Certainly Ali is my brother, my successor and my vicegerent among you. So listen to his word and follow him”.[45]

     In the book “Sira e Ibn e Hisham”, it is narrated from Ibn e Ishaq that Allah’s Messenger (p.b.u.h.) established brotherhood between the migrants and the Ansaar. Then he said, ‘Seek refuge in Allah from associating a word towards the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) which he has not said”.

     “In the path of Allah, become each other’s brother in the form of couples”.

     He then held Ali bin AbiTalib’s hand and said:

     “He is my brother”.

Then he added: Thus, Allah’s Messenger (p.b.u.h.), the head of all Apostles, the Chief of all the God-fearing men, the Prophet of the Lord of the worlds, like whom there is none amongst the servants of God, is the brother of Ali bin AbiTalib (a.s.).[46]

     In the book ‘UsdulGhabah’, Ibn e Atheer says: Prophet (p.b.u.h.) established brotherhood between himself and Ali (a.s.) two times; because once he established brotherhood among the migrants, then between the migrants and Ansaar, and each time, he said to Ali (a.s.):

     “You are my brother in this world and hereafter”.[47]

     There are several texts and chains of the tradition of Brotherhood in both the books of Shias and Sunnis; such that its detail illustration is available in books such as SunanutTirmizi[48], SunanIbn e Majah[49], Al Mustadrak[50] of Hakim e Nishaburi, Tarikh by Tabari[51], Musnad e Ahmad[52], MajmauzZawaa’id by Haythami[53], At Taba’qaatul Kubra by Ibn e Sa’d[54], Ad DurrulManthoor by Suyooti[55], ArRiyadunNadhra by Tabari[56] and FadhailulKhamsa[57].

    

         

 

         

         

 

 

 

 

[1]Mufeed, Masarush Shia, p. 23.

[2] Al Anbiya, verse 92.

[3]Zumar, verse 9.

[4]Zumar, verse 19.

[5]Zumar, verse 24.

[6]Sajdah, verse 18.

[7] Mohammad, verse 14.

[8]Tauba, verse 109.

[9]Aal e Imran, verse 162.

[10]Mulk, verse 22.

[11]Yunus, verse 35.

[12]Ra’d, verse 19.

[13]Yunus, verse 62.

[14]Hujurat, verse 13.

[15]Ra’d, verse 29.

[16]Yunus, 63 – 64.

[17]Sajdah, verse 19.

[18]Saad, verse 28.

[19]Aa’raf, verse 158.

[20] Hajj, verse 1.

[21]Fatir, verse 3.

[22]Yunus, verse 57.

[23]Nisa, verse 1.

[24] A group of people used to debate on the humanity of women in that era and those who had a higher view, considered them like a purgatory between human beings and animals, and said: Women are women, not animals.

[25]Hujuraat, verse 13.

[26]Aal e Imran, verse 64.

[27]Tabarah, RoohudDeen Al-Islami, p. 289.

[28] Maida, verse 18.

[29]Baqara, 111 - 112

[30]Isra, verse 70.

[31]Hujurat, verse 10.

[32]Bukhari, Sahih, v. 3, p. 98; v. 8, p. 59 ; Muslim e Nishaburi, v. 8, p. 18; Tirmizi, Sunan, v. 2, p. 440; Ibn e AbiJamhoorIhsaayi, AwaaliulLe’aali, v. 1, p. 128; Mohaddith e Noori, MustadrakulWasa’il, v. 12, p. 415.

[33]Mufeed, Al Ikhtesaas, p. 27; Hurr e Aamuli, Wasailush Shia, v. 12, p. 206; Majlisi, Bihar ul Anwar, v. 71, p. 221.

[34]Tabari, Jamiul Bayan, v. 1, p. 556; Tusi, At Tibyan, v. 1, p. 332; Tabrisi, Majma’ul Bayan, v. 8, p. 288.

[35] Our respected readers can refer to the book ‘Safinatul Bihar’ of Mohaddis e Qummi, for gaining more information regarding this topic (v.1, p. 13), Bihar ul Anwar of Majlisi (v. 71, p. 221 – 359) and Dar us Salaam of Mohaddis e Noori (v. 3, p. 319 – 459).

[36]Anfal, verse 75.

[37]Majlisi, Biharul Anwar, v. 38, p. 333, chapter 68.

 

[38]Ibn e Hisham, As SiratunNabawiya, v. 1, p. 504 – 505; Majlisi, Bihar ul Anwar, v. 38, p. 336.

[39]Tusi, Al Amali, p. 587; Majlisi, Biharul Anwar, v. 38, p. 333.

 

[40]Mohaddis e Qummi, Safinatul Bihar, v. 1, p. 53.

[41]This Hadith is famous as the ‘Hadith of Position’ and has been narrated through numerous chains by both Shias and Sunnis. Refer to: Ibn e Sa’d, At Tabaqaatul Kubra, v. 3, p. 16; Balazari, AnsaabulAshraaf, v. 2, p. 347 – 349; Beyhaqi, Dalail un Nubuwwa, v. 5, p. 220; Mar’ashiNajafi, Sharh e IhaqaqulHaq.

[42]Hujurat, verse 10.

[43]Yaqubi, Tarikh, v. 2, p. 39; Ibn e Batreeq, UmdatoUyooneSihahulAkhbar, p. 240; same, KhasaisulWah’yulMobeen, p. 120; Ibn e AtheerJazri, UsdulGhabah, v. 3, p. 600 – 601; Amini, Al Ghadir, v. 2, p. 48.

[44]Shoara, verse 214.

[45]IbneBatreeq, KhasaisulWahyulMubeen, p. 121 – 124; Amini, Al Ghadeer, v. 2, p. 278 – 284.

[46]Ibn e Hisham, As SiratunNabawiyah, v. 1, p. 505.

[47]Ibn e AtheerJazri, UsdulGhabah, v. 3, p. 588.

[48]Tirmizi, Sunan, v. 5, p. 300.

[49]Ibn e Majah, Sunan, v. 1, p. 44.

[50]Hakim e Nishaburi, Al Mustadrak, v. 3, p. 14.

[51]Tabari, Tarikh, v. 2, p. 56.

[52]Ahmad bin Hambal, Musnad, v. 1, p. 159.

[53]Haythami, MajmauzZawaa’id, v. 9, p. 134, 205.

[54]Ibn e Sa’d, At Tabaqaatul Kubra, v. 8, p. 23.

[55]Suyooti, Ad DurrulManthoor, v. 4, p. 295, 371.

[56] Tabari, Ar RiyadunNadhra, p. 75 – 80.

[57]Firozabadi, FadailulKhamsa, v. 1, p. 318 – 337.

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