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شنبه: 28 / 05 / 1396 ( )

Rulings regarding Tayammum

 

710. If a person leaves out even a small part of his forehead or the back of his hands in Tayammum, forgetfully or intentionally, or even due to ignorance or not knowing the ruling, his Tayammum will be void. However, it is not necessary to be very particular; if it can be ordinarily assumed that the forehead and the backs of the hands have been wiped, it would be sufficient.

711. In order to be sure that the backs of the hands have been wiped, wiping should be done from slightly above the wrist, however, wiping in between the fingers is not necessary.

712. As per obligatory precaution, the forehead and the backs of the hands should be wiped downwards from above, and their acts should be performed one after the other without undue interruption. If someone interrupts the sequence so much that it could not be said that he is doing Tayammum, then Tayammum will be void.

713. It is necessary to determine while making Niyyat that a particular Tayammum is instead of Wudhu or Ghusl. And if the Tayammum is instead of Ghusl, one must specify which Ghusl. If mistakenly one performs Tayammum instead of Ghusl in place of Tayammum instead of Wudhu or vice versa, or for example in Tayammum instead of Janabat Ghusl, one does a Niyyat for Tayammum instead for Ghusl for touching the dead body, his Tayammum will be void. 

 

714. As per precautionary measures, the forehead, the palm of the hands and the backs of the hands of a person wishing to do Tayammum should be Pak. If one’s palm is Najis, and could not wash it, as per recommended precaution, he should perform two Tayammum; one with the palm of the hands and the other with the back of the hand, i.e. one should strike his back of the hand on an object on which Tayammum is valid, and wipe his forehead and the back of his hands. 

715. While performing Tayammum one should remove the ring one is wearing and also remove any obstruction which may be on his forehead or on the palms or back of his hands, e.g. if anything is stuck on them, should be removed.

716. If a person has a wound on his forehead or on the back of his hands and if it is tied with a bandage or something else, which cannot be removed, he should wipe his hands over it. And if the palm of his hand is wounded and bandaged in a way that it cannot be removed, he should strike his bandaged hands on a thing with which it is permissible to perform Tayammum and then wipe his forehead and the back of his hands.

717. There is no Ishkal (objection) if there is hair on the forehead or on the back of hands. However, if the hair of his head fall on his forehead then it should be pushed back.

718. If one feels that one has some obstruction on his forehead or on the palm or back of his hands, an obstruction commonly known to be so, then one should verify and ensure that the obstruction is removed.

719. If the obligation of a person is Tayammum but he cannot perform it himself he should solicit assistance. And the one who assists should make him perform Tayammum with his own hands. However, if this is not possible the assistant should strike his hands on a thing on which it is permissible to perform Tayammum and then wipe it on the person's forehead and hands.

720. If a man doubts while performing Tayammum whether or not he has forgotten a certain part of it, and if that stage has not yet passed, he should perform that part and continue his Tayammum from that part, after he has passed that stage, he should ignore his doubt.

721. If, after wiping the left hand, a man doubts whether or not he has performed his Tayammum correctly his Tayammum is valid.

 

722. A person whose obligation is Tayammum, cannot perform Tayammum for the Namaz before the time of Namaz is sets in. However, if he performs Tayammum for some other obligatory or Mustahab act and his excuse (on account of which his religious obligation is Tayammum) continues till the time for prayers sets in, he can offer his prayers with that Tayammum.

723. If a person whose obligation is Tayammum knows that his excuse will continue till the end of the time of Namaz, he can offer prayers with Tayammum even during the early part of the time. But, if he knows that his excuse will cease to exist by the end of the time, as per obligatory precaution, he should wait and offer prayers with Wudhu or Ghusl as the case may be.
In fact, if he has a glimmer of hope that his excuse might be removed near the end of Namaz time, as per obligatory precaution, he should wait and offer prayers with Wudhu or Ghusl as the case may be, or if the time left for Namaz is too little (and the excuse is not removed yet) then one can perform Tayammum and pray.

724. If a person, who cannot perform Wudhu or Ghusl, is sure, or considers it probable, that his excuse will not be removed anytime soon, he can offer the Qadha of his past prayers with Tayammum. However, if he has a hope that his excuse will be removed soon, then there is Ishkal (objection) in praying Qadha prayers with Tayammum.

725. It is permissible for a person, who cannot perform Ghusl or Wudhu, to offer with Tayammum the daily Mustahab prayers for which the time is fixed. However, if he has hope that his excuse may cease to exist before the time for prayers is over then, as per precautionary measures, he should not offer the Mustahab prayers during the earlier part of their time.

726. If a person does Ghusl in state of Jabira, and performs Tayammum as a measure of precaution, for example he has a wound on his back, if after Ghusl or Tayammum and he experiences a minor hadath (an act which invalidates Wudhu) for example he urinates, for subsequent prayers until his excuse is there, Tayammum instead of Ghusl is not obligatory, and only Wudhu is sufficient.

727. If a person performs Tayammum on account of non-availability of water or because of some other excuse his Tayammum becomes void as soon as that excuse ceases to exist.

728. The things which invalidate Wudhu invalidate the Tayammum performed instead of Wudhu also. Similarly, the things which invalidate Ghusl invalidate the Tayammum performed instead of Ghusl also.

 

729. If one has upon him several Wajib Ghusls, but he cannot perform them, it is permissible for him to perform one Tayammum instead of all those Ghusls, although it is recommended that for each of those Ghusls he should perform a separate Tayammum. However, if he performs Tayammum instead of Janabat Ghusl, then there is no need to perform any further Tayammum instead of any other Ghusl, but with the intention of Raja’ (complying with the order of Allah).

730. If a person who cannot do Ghusl wishes to perform an act for which Ghusl is obligatory, he should perform Tayammum instead of Ghusl. And a person who cannot perform Wudhu wishes to perform an act for which Wudhu is obligatory, he should perform Tayammum instead of Wudhu.

731. If a person performs Tayammum instead of Ghusl of Janabat it is not necessary for him to perform Wudhu for offering prayers. However, if he performs Tayammum instead of other Ghusls, then he should perform Wudhu also. And if he cannot perform Wudhu, he should do another Tayammum instead of Wudhu.

732. If a person performs Tayammum instead of Ghusl and later he commits acts which makes Wudhu void, and if he cannot perform Ghusl for subsequent prayers, he should perform Wudhu, and as per obligatory precaution, perform Tayammum instead of Ghusl also. And if he cannot perform Wudhu, then he should perform two Tayammum; one instead of Wudhu and another instead of Ghusl, however, if the Tayammum performed is instead of Ghusl of Janabat, if one Tayammum is performed with a hope that his responsibility is discharged, is sufficient.

733. If a person has to carry out a religious obligation, for example, offering prayers, performs Tayammum instead of Wudhu and Ghusl, as per recommended precaution, he should perform a third Ghusl with the intention of carrying out his religious obligation, however, if in the first Tayammum he makes a Niyyat to perform it instead of Wudhu, or instead of Ghusl and performs the second Tayammum with the Niyyat of carrying out his religious obligation, it is sufficient and third Tayammum is not required. 

734. If a person whose obligation is Tayammum performs Tayammum for an act, he can perform all those acts which should be done with Wudhu or Ghusl, as long as his Tayammum and the excuse remain. However, if his excuse was shortage of Namaz time, or if he performed Tayammum for Namaz – e – Mayyit or to go to sleep in spite of water being available, then his Tayammum is valid for its intention and purpose only.

 

735. In some cases it is Mustahab that a person should offer Qadha for the prayers which he offered with Tayammum:

  • When he was afraid of harm caused by using water and yet intentionally entered the state of Janabat and offered prayers with Tayammum.
  • When he knew or suspected that he would not be able to procure water and yet entered the state of Janabat intentionally and offered prayers with Tayammum.
  • When he did not go in search of water intentionally till the time for prayers became short and he offered the prayers with Tayammum and learnt later that if he had made a search for water he would have been able to procure it.
  • When he delayed offering prayers intentionally and offered it with Tayammum at the end of its time.
  • When he threw away the water, although he knew or suspected that he would not be able to get water, and then offered the prayers with Tayammum.

 

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