وریز وجوهات
همزمان با فرارسیدن موسم حج و عزیمت حجاج بیت الله الحرام به سرزمین وحی، بعثه دفتر حضرت آیت الله العظمی صافی گلپایگانی (مد ظله العالی) در مدینه منوره آغاز به کار کرد. حجاج محترم می توانند به منظور طرح سوالات شرعی خود و آگاهی از مناسک و کیفیت...
چهارشنبه: 1 / 06 / 1396 ( )

Zakat of Wheat, Barley, Dates and Raisins

 

1872. Zakat on wheat, barley, dates and raisins becomes obligatory when their quantity reaches the taxable limit which is 45 Misqal[1] less in 288 Mann[2] of Tabriz, which is calculated according to some scholars, is equals to 885 kg.

1873. If before the payment of Zakat a person consumes dates, raisins and its grapes, and also barley and wheat more than usual, he should give Zakat on the quantity used, but if the quantity consumed is less than usual it is not necessary to give Zakat on it.

1874. If the owner of wheat, barley, dates and grapes dies after Zakat on it has become obligatory, that quantity of Zakat should be paid from of his estate. However, if he dies before Zakat becomes obligatory, each one of his heirs, whose share reaches the taxable limit, should pay Zakat from his own share.

1875. A person, who has been appointed by the Mujtahid to collect Zakat, can demand it at the time of harvest when wheat and barley are threshed and chaff is separated from grains, and when the dates and grapes become dry. And if the owner of these items does not give Zakat, and they perish, the owner should compensate for it.

1876. If payment of Zakat becomes obligatory on date tree and grapes or the crop of wheat and barley after one becomes its owner, for example, dates turns red or yellow under ones ownership, one should pay Zakat on them.

1877. If a person sells the crop and trees after Zakat on wheat, barley, palm-dates and grapes becomes obligatory, the seller should pay the Zakat on them.

 

1878. If a person purchases wheat or barley or dates or grapes, and knows that the seller has paid Zakat on them, or doubts whether or not he has paid it, it is not obligatory on him (i.e. the buyer) to pay anything. But if he knows that he (the seller) has not paid Zakat on them, and if the Mujtahid has not given the permission to sell the amount of crop on which Zakat is liable (5% or 10%), the deal for that much quantity will be void, and Mujtahid can take the Zakat from the buyer. And if the Mujtahid gives the permission and legitimize the deal on the quantity of crop liable for Zakat, the deal will be in order, and buyer must give the price of the crop liable for Zakat to the Mujtahid. If the buyer has made the full payment, then he can take the price he paid for the Zakat from seller. Similarly, if the seller pays the Zakat after the deal, the deal will be in order.

1879. If the weight of wheat, barley, dates and grapes reaches the taxable amount when they are wet, and reduces when they become dry, payment of Zakat on it is not obligatory.

1880. If a person disposes of wheat, barley and dates before the time of drying up, and if they reach the taxable limit after they have dried up, he should pay Zakat on them.

1881. Dates which are eaten when they are ripe, and if kept becomes less, or after they are dried up they are no longer called dates, if the quantity of the dried dates exceeds the taxable amount, Zakat on it becomes obligatory.

1882. If a person has paid Zakat once on wheat, barley, dates and raisins, no further Zakat is payable on it, even if they remain with him for a few years.

1883. If wheat, barley, dates and grapes are watered with rain or canal, or if they benefit from the moisture of the land, like in the case of Egyptian crops, the Zakat payable on them is 10% and if they are watered with buckets etc. the Zakat payable on them is 5%. If half amount of crops is watered with rain or canal or moisture of the land, and the other half is watered with buckets etc., Zakat payable on the first half is 10% and the Zakat payable on the second half is 5%, for example if the total amount of crop is divided into 40 parts 3 parts will be paid as Zakat.

1884. If wheat, barley, dates and grapes are watered with both rain water as well as water supplied with buckets etc. and if it is commonly said that they have been irrigated with bucket water etc. the Zakat payable on them is 5% and if it is said that they have been irrigated with canal and rain water, the Zakat payable on them is 10%; and if it is mostly irrigated by the bucket but it is not commonly said that they have been irrigated by bucket etc. in such case Zakat should be calculated

 

accordingly, and as per precautionary measures, on the first half he should pay 10% and on the second half he should pay 5% of Zakat (or 7.5% on the whole).

1885. If a person doubts whether or not the crop was watered equally by rain and bucket water or it was mostly watered with rain water, he can pay 10% from one half and 5% from the other half.

1886. If wheat, barley, dates and grapes are irrigated with rain or canal water and, although they did not need bucket water, yet it was also supplied, with no helpful result for the crop, the Zakat on them is 10%. And if they are watered with bucket water, without having any need of canal and rain water, but are also supplied with canal and rain water without being helpful to the crop, the Zakat on them is 5%.

1887. If a crop is watered with bucket etc. and in the adjoining land he raises a crop which benefits from the moisture of that land (which is irrigated with bucket water etc.) and does not need extra watering, the Zakat of the crop which is watered with bucket is 5% and the Zakat of the crop in the adjoining land, as a precaution is 10%.

1888. Expenses incurred by farmer on the production of wheat, barley, dates and grapes and is usually paid from the product obtained, he can deduct the expenses from the crop obtained. If the remaining amount of crop production reaches the minimum taxable limit, he should pay Zakat on it. And expenses which are not usually paid off from the harvested crop (if deducted from them), as per obligatory precaution, he should calculate the taxable limit taking into account the entire crop, however, it is not obligatory to pay Zakat on that amount of crop (which is deducted as expenses).

1889. A person who has used seeds for farming, if he owned them, he can deduct its value from the total amount of the harvested crop. And if he bought them, he can calculate its amount as the expenses incurred by the farmer on the production of crop.

 1890. If the land or other equipment which is used in farming is owned by the person himself, he should not calculate its rent as expenditure, and similarly, work which he himself has done at the farm field or someone else has done for him for free, he should not deduct anything as expenses from the total amount of obtained crops.   

1891. If a person buys the date or grapes tree, the money spent for buying them will not be considered as an expense, however, if he buys date or grapes before it is taken off the trees and before Zakat becomes liable at them for the legitimate purpose, in this case amount paid for that will be considered as expenses.

 

1892. if a person buys a piece of land, and in that land he sows wheat and barley, the amount he paid for buying the land will not be considered as expenses; however, if he buys the crop before Zakat becomes obligatory upon it, sum of money paid for it will be considered as expenses, and he can deduct the expenses from the harvested crops, however, the money which he will receive for the chaff, he should deduct it against the expense he made for buying the crop, i.e. he should divide the expenses; whatever is from the share of wheat he should deduct from wheat, as one should observe this perspective too in case of farming. For example, if a person buys a crop for $500, and the share of chaff at the time of buying is $100, he can only consider $400 as his expenses (that he will deduct from the harvested crop).

1893. If someone can cultivate his farm without using the cows and other machineries, which is required for cultivation, if he buys these things, he should not deduct the expenses from the harvested crop.

1894. If someone cannot cultivate his farm without using cows or other machineries, if he buys them and while cultivating, it is completely destroyed, he can calculate the full amount spent on them as his expenses. If there was a depreciation he can calculate it as expenses, however, if after the cultivation there was no depreciation in the value, he should not deduct anything from the harvested crop as expenses.   

1895. If in one farm wheat, barley and other things like rice and beans, on which Zakat is not obligatory, is cultivated, if use of machine for cultivating such farm was done in a general way, then the expenses will also be divided among the harvested crops (i.e. expenses will not be just deducted from the crop on which Zakat is obligatory). If the profit from one crop is so little and while cultivating it was not his main consideration, then the expenses will be deducted from that crop which was actually considered by the farmer.

1896. If to plough a farm or for some other purpose, which can be beneficial for many years, buys something, if it is necessary for the first year of cultivation, he he can consider the money spent on such thing as expenses for the first year. 

1897. If a person owns farms in different cities and their climate is also different from each other, and the crops and fruits are not obtained at the same time; if he has wheat, barley, dates or grapes and they all are considered as the product of one year, as any one of them reaches the minimum taxable limit, one should pay its Zakat, and Zakat of remaining commodities will be paid once they will become eligible of it. If the first thing does not reach the minimum taxable limit, but one is sure that the quantity of other things all together will reach the minimum taxable limit, in this case too it is obligatory upon him to give the Zakat on whatever is present at the moment and Zakat of other things will be given when they will be prepared. And if one is not sure that the quantity of everything all together will reach the minimum taxable limit, in this

 

case he should wait, if the quantity reaches the minimum taxable limit, Zakat will become obligatory upon it, and if it does not reaches the minimum taxable limit, Zakat will not be obligatory.

1898. If a date or grape tree gives fruit twice a year and at both time it does not reaches the minimum taxable limit, Zakat will not become obligatory upon it, because cultivation for two seasons is considered as cultivation of two years.  

1899. If one has fresh dates or grapes, whose quantity if dried will reach the minimum taxable amount; there is no Ishkal (objection) if one wants to give the fresh dates or grapes with the intention of Zakat to a deserving poor, if dried, its quantity should be equal to the Zakat which was obligatory upon him.      

1900. If the Zakat of dried dates and raisins is obligatory on someone, then he cannot give the fresh dates or grapes as Zakat, except if they are considered as the same dates and raisins in general on which Zakat has become obligatory. Similarly, if the Zakat of fresh dates or grapes becomes obligatory, one cannot give dried dates or raisins as its Zakat, except if they are considered as the same dates and grapes in general on which Zakat has become obligatory. However, it is permissible, if one of these things or something else is given as the value of Zakat.   

1901. If a person dies, who is indebted and also owns a commodity on which Zakat has become obligatory, firstly Zakat will be given from his property on which it has become obligatory, and then his debts will be settled from his property.   

1902. If a person, who owes a debt and also possesses wheat or barley or dates or grapes, dies, and before Zakat becomes obligatory upon those things, his inheritors pays off his debt from some other property, if any of those things (wheat, barley, dates, grapes) reaches the minimum taxable limit, they should pay the Zakat of it. And if before Zakat becomes obligatory upon it, the inheritors do not pay off his debts, if the whole property of the deceased person is equal to his debt, in such a way that if they want to settle the loan they will have to even give some amount of wheat, barley, dates and grapes too, then whatever will be given to the creditor will be excluded from Zakat, and rest will be the property of the inheritors, and whoever’s share, from inheritors, reaches the minimum taxable limit will have to pay the Zakat.   

  

1903. If Zakat becomes obligatory on wheat, barley, dates or grapes, and they have superior and inferior quality, then as per obligatory precaution, Zakat of the superior quality should not be given from the inferior quality.   

 

 

[1] Unit of calculating weight.

 

[2] Unit of calculating weight.

موضوع: 
نويسنده: